take command linux

This aspect of the syntax of makefiles is often subject to criticism, and is important to take note. However, GNU make (since version 3.82). To run MongoDB in Windows Subsystem for Linux (WSL), refer to the WSL as the data directory and log directory specifications) take effect upon startup. They are also known as positional parameters in Linux. create scripts that can take input from the user and generate output based on a logical pathway. take command linux

: Take command linux

Take command linux
Take command linux
Take command linux
grep -i dma ~]# dmesg — Pipe

A pipe takes the standard output of one command and passes it as the input to another.

  • Syntax:

  • Common options: n/a


head — Read the start of a file

By default, the command displays the first 10 lines of a file. There are times when you may need to quickly look at a few lines in a file and head allows you to do idm 6.32 serial key - Crack Key For U. A typical example of when you’d want to use head is when you need to analyze logs or text files that change frequently.

  • Syntax: [option(s)] file(s)

  • Common options: -n


tail — Read the end of a file

By default, the command displays the last 10 lines of a file. There are times when you may need to quickly look at a few lines in a file and tail allows you to do that. A typical example of when you’d want to use tail is when you need to analyze logs or text files that change frequently.

  • Syntax: [option(s)] file_names

  • Common options: -n


chmod — Sets the file permissions flag on a file or folder

There are situations that you’ll come across where you or a colleague will try to upload a file or modify a document and you receive an error because you don’t have access. The quick fix for this is to use. Permissions can be set with either alphanumeric characters (u, g, o) and can be assigned their access with w, r, x. Conversely, you can also use octal numbers (0-7) to change the permissions. For example, 777 will give access to everyone.

  • Syntax: [option(s)] permissions file_name

  • Common options: -f, -v


exit — Exit out of a directory

The command will close a terminal window, end the execution of a shell script, or log you out of an SSH remote access session.

  • Syntax:

  • Common options: n/a


Keep the learning going.

Learn Bash without scrubbing through videos or documentation. Educative’s text-based course is easy to skim and features live coding environments - making learning quick and efficient.

Master the Bash Shell


history — list your most recent commands

An important command when you need to quickly identify past commands that you’ve used.

  • Syntax:

  • Common options: -c, -d


clear — Clear your terminal window

This command is used to clear all previous commands and output from consoles and terminal windows. This keeps your terminal clean and removes the clutter so you can focus on subsequent commands and their output.

  • Syntax:

  • Common options: n/a


cp — copy files and directories

Use this command when you need to back up your files.

  • Syntax: [option(s)] current_name new_name

  • Common options: -r, -i, -b


kill — terminate stalled processes

The command allows you to terminate a process from the command line. You do this by providing the process ID (PID) of the process to kill. To find the PID, you can use the ps command accompanied by options -aux.

  • Syntax: [signal or option(s)] PID(s)

  • Common options: -p


sleep — delay a process for a specified amount of time

is a common command for controlling jobs and is mainly used in shell scripts. You’ll notice in the syntax that there is a suffix; the suffix is used to specify the unit of time whether it be s (seconds), m (minutes), or d (days). The default unit of time is seconds unless specified.

  • Syntax: number [suffix]

  • Common options: n/a


How to create your own custom Bash commands

Custom commands in Bash are known as “aliases”. Aliases are essentially an abbreviation, or a means to avoid typing a long command sequence. They can save a great deal of typing at the command line so you can avoid having to remember complex combinations of commands and options. There is one caveat to using aliases, and that is to be sure you don’t overwrite any keywords.

  • Syntax: alias_name = “command_to_run”

A very simple example would look like this:

c = “clear”

Now every time you want to clear the screen, instead of typing inyou can just type and you’ll be good to go.

You can also get more complicated, such as if you wanted to set up a web server in a folder:

www = ‘python -m SimpleHTTPServer 8000’

Here’s an example of a useful alias for when you need to test a website in different web browsers:

ff4 = ‘/opt/firefox/firefox’

ff13 = ‘/opt/firefox13/firefox’

chrome = ‘/opt/google/chrome/chrome’

Apart from creating aliases that drivermax latest with crack - Crack Key For U use of one command, you can also use aliases to run multiple commands such as:

name_goes_here = ‘activator && clean && compile && run’

While you can use aliases to run multiple commands, it’s recommended that you use functions as they’re considerably more flexible and allow you to do more complex logic and are great for writing scripts.


Where to go from here

Now that you’re armed with the top commands and how to customize them, you can put them into practice.

Master the Bash Shell will give you an understanding of all the core concepts you need to gain complete control over your system. Ian Miell, the author of Learn Bash the Hard Way, created this course to teach you all the intricacies of Bash that took him decades to learn by trial and error.

Happy learning!

Источник: https://www.educative.io/blog/bash-shell-command-cheat-sheet

Linux make command

Updated: 11/06/2021 by Computer Hope

make command

On Unix-like operating systems, make is a utility for building and maintaining groups of programs (and other types of files) from source code.

This page covers the GNU/Linux version of make.

Description

The purpose of the make utility is to determine automatically which pieces of a large program need to be re-compiled, and issue the commands necessary to recompile them. This documentation describes the GNU implementation of make, which was written by Richard Stallman and Roland McGrath, and is currently maintained by Paul Smith. Many of the examples listed below show C programs, since they are most common, but you can use make with any programming language whose compiler can be run with a shell command. In fact, make is not limited to programs. You can use it to describe any task where some files must be updated automatically from others whenever the others change.

To prepare to use make, you must write a file called the makefile that describes the relationships among files in your program, and the states the commands for updating each file. In a program, typically the executable file is updated from object files, which are in turn made by compiling source files.

Once a suitable makefile exists, each time you change some source files, this simple shell command:

make

suffices to perform all necessary recompilations. The make program uses the makefile data base and the last-modification times of the files to decide which IES VisualAnalysis Free Download the files need to be updated. For each of those files, it issues the commands recorded in the database.

make executes commands in the makefile to update one or more target names, where name is typically a program. If no -f option is present, make will look for the makefiles GNUmakefile, makefile, and Makefile, in that order.

Normally you should call your makefile either makefile or Makefile. (The officially recommended name is Makefile because it appears prominently near the beginning of a directory listing, right near other important files such as README.) The first name checked, GNUmakefile, is not recommended for most makefiles. You should use this name if you have a makefile that is specific to GNU make, and will not be understood by other versions of make. If makefile is a dash ("-"), the standard input is read.

make updates a target if it depends on prerequisite files that have been modified since the target was last modified, or if the target does not exist.

Syntax

make [ -f makefile ] [ options ] . [ targets ] .

Options

-b, -mThese options are ignored, but included for compatibility with other versions of make.
-B, --always-makeUnconditionally make all targets.
-Cdir, --directory=dirChange to directory dir before reading the makefiles or doing anything else. If multiple -C options are specified, each is interpreted relative to the previous one: -C / -C etc is equivalent to -C /etc. This is typically used with recursive invocations of make.
-dPrint debugging information in addition to normal processing. The debugging information says which files are being considered for remaking, which file-times are being compared and with what results, which files actually need to be remade, which implicit rules are considered and that are applied; everything interesting about how make decides what to do.
--debug[=FLAGS]Print debugging information in addition to normal processing. If the FLAGS are omitted, then the behavior is the same as if -d was specified. FLAGS may be a for all debugging output (same as using -d), b for basic debugging, v for more verbose basic debugging, i for showing implicit rules, j for details on invocation of commands, and m for debugging while remaking makefiles.
-e,
--environment-overrides
Give variables taken from the environment precedence over variables from makefiles.
-ffile, --file=file,
--makefile=file
Use file as a makefile.
-i, --ignore-errorsIgnore all errors in commands executed to remake files.
-Idir, --include-dir=dirSpecifies a directory dir to search for included makefiles. If several -I options are used to specify several directories, the directories are searched in the order specified. Unlike the arguments to other flags of make, directories given with -I flags may come directly after the flag: -Idir is allowed, as well as -Idir. This syntax is allowed for compatibility with the C preprocessor's -I flag.
-j [jobs], --jobs[=jobs]Specifies the number of jobs (commands) to run simultaneously. If there is more than one -j option, the last one is effective. If the -j option is given without an argument, make will not limit the number of jobs that can run simultaneously.
-k, --keep-goingContinue as much as possible after an error. While the target that failed (and those that depend on it) cannot be remade, the other dependencies of these targets can be processed all the same.
-l [load],
--load-average[=load]
Specifies that no new jobs (commands) should be started if there are others jobs running and the load average is at least load (a floating-point number). With no argument, removes a previous load limit.
-L,
--check-symlink-times
Use whichever is the latest modification time between symlinks and target.
-n, --just-print,
--dry-run, --recon
Print the commands that would be executed, but do not execute them.
-ofile, --old-file=file,
--assume-old=file
Do not remake the file file even if it is older than its dependencies, and do not remake anything on account of changes in file. Essentially the file is treated as very old and its rules are ignored.
-p, --print-data-basePrint the database (rules and variable values) that results from reading the makefiles; then execute as usual or as otherwise specified. This also prints the version information given by the -v switch (see below). To print the database without trying to remake any microsoft office 365 free download full version with serial key Microsoft Office 2021 Crack free Pro, use make -p -f/dev/null.
-q, --question"Question mode." Do not run any commands, or print anything; just return an exit status that is zero if the specified targets are already up to date, nonzero otherwise.
-r, --no-builtin-rulesEliminate use of the built-in implicit rules. Also, clear out the default list of suffixes for suffix rules.
-R, --no-builtin-variablesDon't define any built-in variables.
-s, --silent, --quietSilent operation; do not print the commands as they are executed.
-S, --no-keep-going,
--stop
Cancel the effect of the -k option. This is never necessary except in a recursive make where -k might be inherited from the top-level make via MAKEFLAGS or if you set -k in MAKEFLAGS in your environment.
-t, --touchTouch files (mark them up to date without really changing them) instead of running their commands. This is used to pretend that the commands were done, to fool future invocations of make.
-v, --versionPrint the version of make; also a Copyright, a list of authors and a notice that there is no warranty.
-w, --print-directoryPrint a message containing the working directory before and after other processing. This may be useful for tracking down errors from complicated nests of recursive make commands.
--no-print-directoryTurn off -w, even if it was turned on implicitly.
-Wfile, --what-if=file,
--new-file=file,
--assume-new=file
Pretend that the target file has just been modified. When used with the -n flag, this shows you what would happen if you were to modify that file. Without -n, it is almost the same as running a touch command on the given file before running make, except that the modification time is changed only internally within make.
--warn-undefined-variablesWarn when an undefined variable is referenced.

Typical Use

make is typically used to build executable programs and libraries from source code. Generally speaking, make is applicable to any process that involves executing arbitrary commands to transform a source file to a target advanced system repair pro 2018 review - Crack Key For U. For example, make could be used to detect a change made to an image file (the source) and the transformation actions might be to convert the file to some specific format, copy the result into a content management system, and then send e-mail to a predefined set of users that the above actions were performed.

make is invoked with a list of target file names to build as command-linearguments:

make [TARGET .]

Without arguments, make builds the first target that appears in its makefile, which is traditionally a target named all.

make decides whether a target needs to be regenerated by comparing file modification times. This solves the problem of avoiding the building of files that are already up to date, but it fails when a file changes but its modification time stays in the past. Such changes could be caused by restoring an older version of a source file, or when a networkfilesystem is a source of files and its clock or timezone is not synchronized with the machine running make. The user must handle this situation by forcing a complete build. Conversely, if a source file's modification time is in the future, it may trigger unnecessary rebuilding.

Makefiles

make searches the current directory for the makefile to use. GNU make searches files for a file named one of GNUmakefile, makefile, and then Makefile, and runs the specified target(s) from that file.

The makefile language is similar to declarative programming, in which necessary end conditions are described but the order in which actions are to be taken is not important. This may be confusing to programmers used to imperative programming, which explicitly describes how the end result will be reached.

One problem in build automation is the tailoring of a build process to a given platform. For instance, the compiler used on one platform might not accept the same options as the one used on another. This is not well handled by make on its own. This problem is typically handled by generating separate platform-specific build instructions, which in turn may be processed by make. Common tools for this process are autoconf and cmake.

Rules

A makefile essentially consists of rules. Each rule begins with a dependency line which defines a target followed by a colon (":") and optionally an enumeration of components (files or other targets) on take command linux the target depends. The dependency line is arranged so that the target (left hand of the colon) depends on components (right hand of the colon). It is common to refer to components as prerequisites of the target.

target [target .]: [component .] [<TAB> command 1]. . [<TAB> command n]

Here, <TAB> is the tab character. Usually each rule has a single unique target, rather than multiple targets.

For example, a C .o object file is created from .c files, so .c files come first (i.e., specific object file target depends on a C source file and header files). Because make itself does not understand, recognize or distinguish different kinds of files, this opens up the possibility for human error. A forgotten or an extra dependency may not be immediately obvious and may result in subtle bugs in the generated software. It is possible to write makefiles which generate these dependencies by calling third-party tools, and some makefile generators, such as the GNU automake toolchain, can do so automatically.

After each dependency line, a series of command lines may follow which define how to transform the components (usually source files) into the target (usually the "output"). If any of the components have been modified, the command lines are run.

With GNU make, the first command may appear on the same line after the prerequisites, separated by a semicolon:

targets : prerequisites ; command

for example:

hello: ; @echo "hello"

Each command line must begin with a tab character to be recognized as a command. The tab is a whitespace character, but the space character does not have the same special meaning. This is problematic, since there may be no visual difference between a tab and a series of space characters. This aspect of the syntax of makefiles is often subject to criticism, and is important to take note.

However, GNU make (since version 3.82) allows the user to choose any symbol (one character) as the recipe prefix using the .RECIPEPREFIX special variable, for example:

.RECIPEPREFIX := : all: :@echo "recipe prefix symbol is set to '$(.RECIPEPREFIX)'"

Each command is executed by a separate shell or command-line interpreter instance. Since operating systems use different command-line interpreters this can lead to unportable makefiles. For instance, GNU make by default executes commands with /bin/sh, which is the shell where Unix commands like cp are normally used.

A rule may have no command lines defined. The dependency line can consist solely of components that refer to targets, for example:

realclean: clean distclean

The command lines of a rule are usually arranged so that they generate the target. An example: if "file.html" is newer, it is converted to text. The contents of the makefile:

file.txt: file.html lynx -dump file.html > file.txt

The above rule would be triggered when make updates "file.txt".

In the following invocation, make would typically use this rule to update the "file.txt" target if "file.html" were newer:

make file.txt

Command lines can have one or more of the following three prefixes:

  • a hyphen-minus (-), specifying that errors are ignored
  • an at sign (@), specifying that the command is not printed to standard output before it is executed
  • a plus sign (+), the command is executed even if make is invoked in a "do not execute" mode

Ignoring errors and silencing all echo output can also be obtained via the special targets ".IGNORE" and ".SILENT", respectively.

Macros

A makefile can contain definitions of macros. Macros are usually referred to as variables when they hold simple string definitions, like "CC=clang", which would specify clang as the C compiler. Macros in makefiles may be overridden in the command-line arguments passed to the make utility. environment variables are also available as macros.

Macros allow users to specify the programs invoked and other ashampoo snap 11 crack - Free Activators behavior during the build process. For example, as just shown, the macro "CC" is frequently used in makefiles to refer to the location of a C compiler.

New macros are traditionally defined using capital letters:

MACRO = definition

A macro is used by expanding it. Traditionally this is done by enclosing its name inside $(). An equivalent form uses curly braces rather than parenthesis, i.e., ${}, which is the style used in BSD operating systems.

NEW_MACRO = $(MACRO)-$(MACRO2)

Macros can be composed of shell commands using the command substitution operator, denoted by backticks ("` `").

YYYYMMDD = ` date `

The content of the definition is stored "as is". Lazy evaluation is used, meaning that macros are normally expanded only when their expansions are actually required, such as when used in the command lines of a rule. For example:

PACKAGE = package VERSION = ` date +"%Y.%m%d" ` ARCHIVE = $(PACKAGE)-$(VERSION) dist: # Notice that only now macros are expanded for shell to interpret: # tar -cf package-`date +"%Y%m%d"`.tar tar -zcf $(ARCHIVE).tar .

The generic syntax for overriding macros on the command line is:

make MACRO="value" [MACRO="value" .] TARGET [TARGET .]

Makefiles can access any of a number of predefined internal macros, with "?" and "@" being the most common.

target: component1 component2 echo $? contains those components, which need attention (i.e., they ARE YOUNGER than current TARGET). echo [email protected] evaluates to current TARGET name from among those left of the colon.

Suffix Rules

Suffix rules have "targets" with names in the form .FROM.TO and are used to launch actions based on file extension. In the command lines of suffix rules, POSIX specifies that the internal macro "$<" refers to the first prerequisite and "[email protected]" refers to the target. In this example, which converts any HTML file into text, the shell redirection token ">" is part of the command line whereas "$<" is a macro referring to the HTML file:

.SUFFIXES: .txt .html # From .html to .txt .html.txt: lynx -dump $< > [email protected]

When called from the command line, the above example expands the command:

make -n file.txt

into:

lynx -dump file.html > file.txt

Other Elements

  • Single-line comments are started with the hash symbol ("#").
  • Some directives in makefiles can include other makefiles.
  • Line continuation is indicated with a backslash ("\") character at the end of a line, as in the following:
target: component \ component <TAB>command ; \ <TAB>command -U number or name Display only processes with a user id or user name matching that given. The `-u' option matches on effective user whereas the `-U' option matches on any user (real, effective, saved, or filesystem). Prepending an exclamation point (`!') to the user id or name instructs top to display only processes with users not matching the one provided. The `p', `u' and `U' command-line options are mutually exclusive. take command linux -w :Output-width-override as: -w [ number ] In Batch mode, when used without an argument top will format output using the COLUMNS= and LINES= environment variables, if set. Otherwise, width will be fixed at the maximum 512 columns. With an argument, output width can be decreased or increased (up to 512) but the number of rows is considered unlimited. In normal display mode, when used without an argument top will attempt to format output using the COLUMNS= and LINES= environment variables, if set. With an argument, output width can only be decreased, not increased. Whether using environment variables or an argument with -w, when not in Batch mode actual terminal dimensions can never be exceeded. Note: Without the use of this command-line option, output width is always based on the terminal at which top was invoked whether or not in Batch mode. -1 :Single/Separate-Cpu-States toggle Starts top with the last remembered Cpu States portion of the summary area reversed. Either all cpu information will be displayed in a single line or each cpu will be displayed separately, depending on the state of the NUMA Node command toggle ('2'). See the `1' and '2' interactive commands for additional information.

2. SUMMARY Display         top

Each of the following three areas are individually controlled through one or more interactive commands. See topic 4b. SUMMARY AREA Commands for additional information regarding these provisions. 2a. UPTIME and LOAD Averages This portion consists of a single line Tenorshare iCareFone 6.1.0.5 Free Download with Crack program or window name, depending on display mode current time and length of time since last boot total number of users system load avg over the last 1, 5 and 15 minutes 2b. TASK and CPU States This portion consists of a minimum of two lines. In an SMP environment, additional lines can reflect individual CPU state percentages. Line 1 shows total tasks or threads, depending on the state of the Threads-mode toggle. That total is further classified as: running; sleeping; stopped; zombie Line 2 shows CPU state percentages based on the interval since the last take command linux. As a default, percentages for these individual categories are displayed. Where two labels are shown below, those for more recent kernel versions are shown first. us, user : time running un-niced user processes sy, system : time running kernel processes ni, nice : time running niced user processes id, idle : time spent in the kernel idle handler wa, IO-wait : time waiting for I/O completion hi : time spent servicing hardware interrupts si : time spent servicing software interrupts st : time stolen from this vm by the hypervisor In the alternate cpu states display modes, beyond the first tasks/threads line, an abbreviated summary is shown consisting of these elements: a b c d %Cpu(s): 75.0/25.0 100[ . Where: a) is the `user' (us + ni) percentage; b) is the `system' (sy + hi + si) percentage; c) is the total; and d) is one of two visual graphs of those representations. See topic 4b. SUMMARY AREA Commands and the `t' command for additional information on that special 4-way toggle. 2c. MEMORY Usage This portion consists of two lines which may express values in kibibytes (KiB) through exbibytes (EiB) depending on the scaling factor enforced with the `E' interactive command. As a default, Line 1 reflects physical memory, classified as: total, free, used and buff/cache Line 2 reflects mostly virtual memory, classified as: total, free, used and avail (which is physical memory) The avail number on line 2 is an estimation of physical memory available for starting new applications, without swapping. Unlike the free field, it attempts to account for readily reclaimable page cache and memory slabs. It is available on kernels 3.14, emulated on kernels 2.6.27+, otherwise the same as free. In the alternate memory display modes, two abbreviated summary lines are shown consisting of these elements: a b c GiB Mem : 18.7/15.738 [ . GiB Swap: 0.0/7.999 [ . Where: a) is the percentage used; b) is the total available; and c) is one of two visual graphs of those representations. In the case of physical memory, the percentage represents the total minus the estimated avail noted above. The `Mem' graph itself is divided between used and any remaining memory not otherwise accounted for by avail. See topic 4b. SUMMARY AREA Commands and the `m' command for additional information on that special 4-way toggle. This table may help in interpreting the scaled values displayed: KiB = kibibyte = 1024 bytes MiB = mebibyte = 1024 KiB = 1,048,576 bytes GiB = gibibyte = 1024 MiB = 1,073,741,824 bytes TiB = tebibyte = 1024 GiB = 1,099,511,627,776 bytes PiB = pebibyte = 1024 TiB = 1,125,899,906,842,624 bytes EiB = exbibyte = 1024 PiB = 1,152,921,504,606,846,976 bytes

3. FIELDS / Columns         top

3a. DESCRIPTIONS of Fields Listed below are top's available process fields (columns). They are shown in strict ascii alphabetical order. You may customize their position and whether or not they are displayable with the `f' (Fields Management) interactive command. Any field is selectable as the sort field, and you control whether they are sorted high-to-low or internet download manager firefox - Crack Key For U. For additional information on sort provisions see topic 4c. TASK AREA Commands, SORTING. The fields related to physical memory or virtual memory reference `(KiB)' which is the unsuffixed display mode. Such fields may, however, be scaled from KiB through PiB. That scaling is influenced via the `e' interactive command or established for startup through a build option. 1. %CPU -- Take command linux Usage The task's share of the elapsed CPU time since the last screen update, expressed as a percentage of total CPU time. In a true SMP environment, if a process is multi-threaded and top is not operating in Threads mode, amounts greater than 100% may be reported. You toggle Threads mode with the `H' interactive command. Also for multi-processor environments, if Irix mode is Off, top will operate in Solaris mode where a task's cpu usage WonderFox DVD Ripper Pro Free Download will be divided by the total number of CPUs. You toggle Irix/Solaris modes with the `I' interactive command. Note: When running in forest view mode (`V') with children collapsed (`v'), this field will also include the CPU time of those unseen children. See topic 4c. TASK AREA Commands, CONTENT for more information regarding the `V' and `v' toggles. 2. %MEM -- Memory Usage (RES) A task's currently resident share of available physical memory. See `OVERVIEW, Linux Memory Types' for additional details. 3. CGNAME -- Control Group Name The name of the control group to which a process belongs, or `-' if not applicable for that process. This will typically be the last entry in the full list of control groups as shown under the next heading (CGROUPS). And as is true there, this field is also variable width. 4. CGROUPS -- Control Groups The names of the control group(s) to which a process belongs, or `-' if not applicable for that process. Control Groups provide for allocating resources (cpu, memory, NOD32 AntiVirus 11.2 Product Key - Crack Key For U network bandwidth, etc.) among installation-defined groups of processes. They enable fine-grained control over allocating, denying, prioritizing, managing and monitoring those resources. Many different hierarchies of cgroups can exist simultaneously on a system and each hierarchy is attached to one or more subsystems. A subsystem represents a single resource. Note: The CGROUPS field, unlike most columns, is not fixed- width. When displayed, it plus any other variable width columns will be allocated all remaining screen width (up to the maximum 512 characters). Even so, such variable width fields could still suffer truncation. See topic 5c. SCROLLING a Window for additional information on accessing any truncated data. 5. CODE -- Code Size (KiB) The amount of physical memory currently devoted to executable code, also known as the Text Resident Set size or TRS. See `OVERVIEW, Linux Memory Types' for additional details. 6. COMMAND -- Command Name or Command Line Display the command line used to start a task or the name of the associated program. You toggle between command line and name HoRNet SongKey MK3 3.0.2 Free Download `c', which is both a command-line option and an interactive command. When you've chosen to display command lines, processes without a command line (like kernel threads) will be shown with only the program name in brackets, as in this example: [kthreadd] This field may also be impacted by the forest view display mode. See the `V' interactive command for additional information regarding that mode. take command linux Note: The COMMAND field, unlike most columns, is not fixed- width. When displayed, it plus any other variable width columns will be allocated all remaining screen width (up to the maximum 512 characters). Even so, such variable width fields could still suffer truncation. This is especially true for this field when command lines are being displayed (the `c' interactive command.) See topic 5c. SCROLLING a Window for additional information on accessing any truncated data. 7. DATA -- Data + Stack Size (KiB) The amount of private memory reserved by a process. It is also known as the Data Resident Set or DRS. Such memory may not yet be mapped to physical memory (RES) but will always be included in the virtual memory (VIRT) amount. See `OVERVIEW, Linux Memory Types' for additional details. 8. ENVIRON -- Environment variables Display all of the environment variables, if any, as seen by the respective processes. These variables will be displayed capture one price their raw native order, not the sorted order you are accustomed to seeing with an unqualified `set'. Note: The ENVIRON field, unlike most columns, is not fixed- width. When displayed, it plus any other variable width columns will be allocated all remaining screen width (up to the maximum 512 characters). Even so, such variable width fields could still suffer truncation. This is especially true for this field. See topic 5c. SCROLLING a Window for additional information on accessing any truncated data. 9. Flags -- Task Flags This column represents the task's current scheduling flags which are expressed in hexadecimal notation and with zeros suppressed. These flags are officially documented in <linux/sched.h>. 10. GID -- Group Id The effective group ID. 11. GROUP -- Group Name The effective group name. 12. LXC -- Lxc Container Name The name of the lxc container within which a task is running. If a process is not running inside a container, a dash (`-') will be shown. 13. NI -- Nice Value The nice value of the task. A negative nice value means higher priority, whereas a positive nice value means lower priority. Zero in this field simply means priority will not be adjusted in determining a task's dispatch-ability. 14. NU -- Last known NUMA node A number representing the NUMA node associated with the last used processor (`P'). When -1 is displayed it means that NUMA information is not available. See the `'2' and `3' interactive commands for additional NUMA provisions affecting the summary area. 15. OOMa -- Out of Memory Adjustment Factor The value, ranging from -1000 to +1000, added to the current out of memory score (OOMs) which is then used to determine which task to kill when memory is exhausted. 16. OOMs -- Out of Memory Score The value, ranging from 0 to +1000, used to select task(s) to kill when memory is exhausted. Zero translates to `never kill' whereas 1000 means `always kill'. 17. P -- Last used CPU (SMP) A number representing the last used processor. In a true SMP environment this will likely change frequently since the kernel intentionally uses weak affinity. Also, the very act of running top may break this weak affinity and cause more processes to change CPUs more often (because of the extra demand for cpu time). 18. PGRP -- Process Group Id Every process is member of a unique process group which is used for distribution of signals and by terminals to arbitrate requests for their input and output. When a process is created (forked), it becomes a member of the process group of its parent. By convention, this value equals the process ID (see PID) of the first member of a process group, called the process group leader. 19. PID -- Process Id The task's unique process ID, which periodically wraps, though never restarting at zero. In kernel terms, it is a dispatchable entity defined by a task_struct. take command linux This May 4, 2021 - Free Activators may also be used as: a process group ID (see PGRP); a session ID for the session leader (see SID); a thread group ID for the thread group leader (see TGID); and a TTY process group ID for the process group leader (see TPGID). 20. PPID -- Parent Process Id The process ID (pid) of a task's parent. 21. PR -- Priority The scheduling priority of the task. If you see `rt' in this field, it means the task is running under real time scheduling priority. Under linux, real time priority is somewhat misleading since traditionally the operating itself was not preemptible. And take command linux the 2.6 kernel can be made mostly preemptible, it is not always so. 22. RES -- Resident Memory Size (KiB) A subset of the virtual address space (VIRT) representing the non-swapped physical memory a task is currently using. It is also the sum of the RSan, RSfd and RSsh fields. It can include private anonymous pages, private pages mapped to files (including program images and shared libraries) plus shared anonymous pages. All such memory is backed by the swap file represented separately under SWAP. Lastly, this field may also include shared file-backed pages which, when modified, act as a dedicated swap file and thus will never impact SWAP. See `OVERVIEW, Linux Memory Types' for additional details. 23. RSan -- Resident Anonymous Memory Size (KiB) A subset of resident memory (RES) representing private pages not mapped to a file. 24. RSfd -- Resident File-Backed Memory Size (KiB) A subset of resident memory (RES) representing the implicitly shared pages supporting program images and shared libraries. It also includes explicit file mappings, both private and shared. EdrawSoft Edraw Max Serial key 25. RSlk -- Resident Locked Memory Size (KiB) A subset of resident memory (RES) which cannot be swapped out. 26. RSsh -- Resident Shared Memory Size (KiB) A subset of resident memory (RES) representing the explicitly shared anonymous shm*/mmap pages. 27. RUID -- Real User Id The real user ID. 28. RUSER -- Real User Name The real user name. 29. S -- Process Status The status of the task which can be one of: D = uninterruptible sleep I = idle R = running S = sleeping T = stopped by job control signal t = stopped by debugger during trace Z = zombie Tasks shown as running should be more properly thought of as ready to run -- their task_struct is simply represented on the Linux run-queue. Even without a true SMP machine, you may see numerous tasks in this state depending on top's delay interval and nice value. 30. SHR -- Shared Memory Size (KiB) A subset of resident memory (RES) that may be used by other processes. It will include shared anonymous pages and shared file-backed pages. It also includes private pages mapped to drip fx download - Activators Patch files representing program images and shared libraries. See `OVERVIEW, Linux Memory Types' for additional details. 31. SID -- Session Id A session is a collection of process groups (see PGRP), usually established by the login shell. A newly forked process joins the session of its creator. By convention, this value equals the process ID (see PID) of the first member of the session, called the session leader, which is Veeam Backup & Replication 10.0.0.446 License key Crack usually the login shell. 32. SUID -- Saved User Id The saved user ID. 33. SUPGIDS -- Supplementary Group IDs The IDs of any supplementary group(s) established at login or inherited from a task's parent. They are displayed in a comma delimited list. Note: The SUPGIDS field, unlike most columns, is not fixed- width. When displayed, it plus any other variable width columns will be allocated all remaining screen width (up to the maximum 512 characters). Even so, such variable width fields could still suffer truncation. See topic 5c. SCROLLING a Window for additional information on accessing any truncated data. 34. SUPGRPS -- Supplementary Group Names The names of any supplementary group(s) established at login or inherited from a task's parent. They are displayed in a comma delimited list. Note: The SUPGRPS field, unlike most columns, is not fixed- width. When displayed, it plus any other variable width columns will be allocated all remaining screen width (up to the maximum 512 characters). Even so, such variable width fields could still suffer truncation. See topic 5c. SCROLLING a Window for additional information on accessing any truncated data. 35. SUSER -- Saved User Name The saved user name. 36. SWAP -- Swapped Size (KiB) The formerly resident portion of a task's address space written to the swap file when physical memory becomes over committed. See `OVERVIEW, Linux Memory Types' for additional details. 37. TGID -- Thread Group Id The ID of the thread group to which a task belongs. It is the PID of the thread group leader. In kernel terms, it represents those tasks that share an mm_struct. 38. TIME -- CPU Time Total CPU time the task has used since it started. When Cumulative mode is On, each process is listed with the cpu time that it and its dead children have used. You toggle Cumulative mode with `S', which is both a command-line option and an interactive command. See the `S' interactive command for additional information regarding this June 16, 2021 - Free Activators. 39. TIME+ -- CPU Time, hundredths The same as TIME, but reflecting more granularity through hundredths of a second. 40. TPGID -- Tty Process Group Id The process group ID of the foreground process for the connected tty, or -1 if a process is not connected to a terminal. By convention, this value equals the process ID (see PID) of the process group leader (see PGRP). 41. TTY -- Controlling Tty The name of the controlling terminal. This is usually the device (serial port, pty, etc.) from which the process was started, and which it uses for input or output. However, a task need not be associated with a terminal, in which case you'll see `?' displayed. 42. UID -- User Id The effective user ID of the task's owner. 43. USED -- Memory in Use (KiB) This field represents the non-swapped physical memory a task is using (RES) plus the swapped out portion of its address space (SWAP). See `OVERVIEW, Linux Memory Types' for additional details. 44. USER -- User Name The effective user name of the task's owner. 45. VIRT -- Virtual Memory Size (KiB) The total amount of virtual memory used by the task. It includes all code, data and shared libraries plus pages that have been swapped out and pages that have been mapped but not used. See `OVERVIEW, Linux Memory Types' for additional details. 46. WCHAN -- Sleeping in Function This field will show the name of the kernel function in which the task is currently sleeping. Running tasks will display a dash (`-') in this column. take command linux 47. nDRT -- Dirty Pages Count The number of pages that have been modified since they were last written to auxiliary storage. Dirty pages must be written to auxiliary storage before the corresponding physical memory location can be used for some other virtual page. This field was deprecated with linux 2.6 and is always zero. 48. nMaj -- Major Page Fault Count The number of major page faults that have occurred for a task. A page fault occurs when a process attempts to read from or write to a virtual page that is not currently present in its address space. A major page fault is when auxiliary storage access is involved in making that page available. 49. nMin -- Minor Page Fault count The number of minor page faults that have occurred for a task. A page fault occurs when a process attempts to read from or write to a virtual page that is not currently present in its address space. A minor page fault does not involve auxiliary storage access in making that page available. 50. nTH -- Number of Threads The number of threads associated with a process. 51. nsIPC -- IPC namespace The Inode of the namespace used to isolate interprocess communication (IPC) resources such as System V IPC objects and POSIX message queues. 52. nsMNT -- MNT namespace The Inode of the namespace used to isolate filesystem mount points thus offering different views of the filesystem hierarchy. 53. nsNET -- NET namespace The Inode of the namespace used to isolate resources such as network devices, IP addresses, IP routing, port numbers, etc. 54. nsPID -- PID namespace The Inode of the namespace used to isolate process ID numbers meaning they need not remain unique. Thus, each such namespace could have its own `init/systemd' (PID #1) to manage various initialization tasks and reap orphaned child processes. 55. nsUSER -- USER namespace The Inode of the namespace used to isolate the user and group mixcraft 9 pro studio free download - Free Activators ID numbers. Thus, a process could have a normal unprivileged user ID outside a user namespace while having a user ID of 0, with full root privileges, inside that namespace. 56. nsUTS -- UTS namespace The Inode of the namespace used to isolate hostname and NIS domain name. UTS simply means "UNIX Time-sharing System". 57. vMj -- Major Page Fault Count Delta The number of major page faults that have occurred since the last update (see nMaj). 58. vMn -- Minor Page Fault Count Delta The number of minor page faults that have occurred since the last update (see nMin). 3b. MANAGING Fields After pressing the interactive command `f' (Fields Management) you will be presented with a screen showing: 1) the `current' window name; 2) the designated sort field; 3) all fields in their current order along with descriptions. Entries marked with an asterisk are the currently displayed fields, screen width permitting. • As the on screen instructions indicate, you navigate among the fields with the Up and Down arrow keys. The PgUp, PgDn, Home and End keys can also be used to quickly reach the first or last available field. • The Right arrow key selects a field for repositioning and the Left arrow key or the <Enter> key commits that field's placement. • The `d' key or the <Space> bar toggles a field's display status, and thus the presence or absence of the asterisk. • The `s' key designates a field as the sort field. See topic 4c. TASK AREA Commands, SORTING for additional information regarding your selection of a sort field. • The `a' and `w' keys can be used to cycle through all available windows and the `q' or <Esc> keys exit Fields Management. The Fields Management screen can also be used to change the `current' window/field group in either full-screen mode or alternate-display mode. Whatever was targeted when `q' or <Esc> was pressed will be made current as you return to the top display. See topic 5. ALTERNATE-DISPLAY Provisions and the `g' interactive command for insight into `current' windows and field groups. Note: Any window that has been scrolled horizontally will be reset if any field changes are made via the Fields Management screen. Any vertical scrolled position, however, will not be affected. See topic 5c. SCROLLING a Window for additional information regarding vertical and horizontal scrolling.

4. INTERACTIVE Commands         top

Listed below is a brief index of commands within categories. Some commands appear more than once -- their meaning or scope may vary depending on the context in which they are issued. 4a. Global-Commands <Ent/Sp> ?, =, 0, A, B, d, E, e, g, h, H, I, k, q, r, s, W, X, Y, Z 4b. Summary-Area-Commands C, l, t, m, 1, 2, 3, 4, ! 4c. Task-Area-Commands Appearance: b, J, j, x, y, z bluestacks premium crack 2018 - Free Activators Content: c, F, f, O, o, S, U, u, V, v Size: #, i, n Sorting: <, >, f, R 4d. Color-Mapping <Ret>, a, B, b, H, M, q, S, T, w, z, 0 - 7 5b. Commands-for-Windows - _, =, +, A, a, g, G, w 5c. Scrolling-a-Window C, Up, Dn, Left, Right, PgUp, PgDn, Home, End 5d. Searching-in-a-Window L, & 4a. GLOBAL Commands The global interactive commands are always available in both full-screen mode and alternate-display mode. However, some of these interactive commands are not available when running in Secure mode. If you wish to know in advance whether or not your top has been secured, simply ask for help and view the system summary on the second line. <Enter> or <Space> :Refresh-Display These commands awaken top and following receipt of any input the entire display will be repainted. They also force an update of any hotplugged cpu or physical memory changes. Use either of these keys if you have a large delay interval and wish to see current status, ? -U :User-filter-mode as: -u

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The 50 Most Popular Linux \u0026 Terminal Commands - Full Course for Beginners

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Источник: https://linuxcommand.org/lc3_lts0070.php
grep -i tty

These above commands can be merged into a single command using multiple grep option (-E), examples is shown below,

~]# dmesg

Linux commands: xargs

The command is used in a UNIX shell to convert input from standard input into arguments to a command.

In other words, through the use of the output of a command is used as the input of another command.

Here’s the syntax you will use:

We use a pipe () to pass the output to . That will take care of running the command, using the output of as its argument(s).

Let’s do a simple example. You want to remove some specific files from a directory. Those files are listed inside a text file.

We have 3 files: , , .

In we have a list of files we want to delete, in this example and :

We will channel the output of to the command, through .

In this way:

That’s the result, the files we listed are now deleted:

The way it works is that will run 2 times, one for each line returned by .

This is the simplest usage of . There are several options we can use.

One of the most useful in my opinion, especially when starting to learn , is . Using this option will make print a confirmation prompt with the action it’s going to take:

The option lets you tell to perform one iteration at a time, so you can individually confirm them with . Here we tell to perform one iteration at a time with :

The option is another widely used one. It allows you to get the output into a placeholder, and then you can do various things.

One of them is to run multiple commands:

You can swap the symbol I used above with anything else, it’s a variable

The command works on Linux, macOS, WSL, and anywhere you have a UNIX environment

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Источник: https://flaviocopes.com/linux-command-xargs/
o :Other-Filtering You will be prompted for the selection criteria which then determines which tasks will be shown in the `current' window. Your criteria can be made case sensitive or case can be ignored. And you determine if top should include or exclude matching tasks. See topic 5e. FILTERING in a window for details on these and additional related interactive commands. S :Cumulative-Time-Mode toggle When Cumulative mode is On, each process is listed with the cpu time that it and its dead children have used. When Off, programs that fork into many separate tasks will appear less demanding. For programs like `init' or a shell this is appropriate but for others, like compilers, perhaps not. Experiment with two task windows sharing the same sort field but with different `S' states and see which representation you prefer. After issuing this command, you'll be informed of the new state of this toggle. If you wish to know in advance whether or not Cumulative mode is in effect, simply ask for help and view the window summary on the second line. U -bcEeHiOSs1 -d secs -n max -u

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