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Introduction of Fibre-Reinforced Polymers − Polymers and Composites: Concepts, Properties and Processes

Open access peer-reviewed chapter

By Martin Alberto Masuelli

Reviewed: October 24th 2012Published: January 23rd 2013

DOI: 10.5772/54629

1. Introduction

, also , is a composite material made of a polymer matrix reinforced with fibres. The fibres are usually glass, carbon, or aramid, although other fibres such as paper or wood or asbestos have been sometimes used. The polymer is usually an epoxy, vinylester or polyester thermosetting plastic, and phenol formaldehyde resins are still in use. FRPs are commonly used in the aerospace, automotive, marine, and construction industries.

Composite materials are engineered or naturally occurring materials made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties which remain separate and distinct within the finished structure. Most composites have strong, stiff fibres in a matrix which is weaker and less stiff. The objective is usually to make a component which is strong and stiff, often with a low density. Commercial material commonly has glass or carbon fibres in matrices based on thermosetting polymers, such as epoxy or polyester resins. Sometimes, thermoplastic polymers may be preferred, since they are moldable after initial production. There are further classes of composite in which the matrix is a metal or a ceramic. For the most part, these are still in a developmental stage, with problems of high manufacturing costs yet to be overcome [1]. Furthermore, in these composites the reasons for adding the fibres (or, in some cases, particles) are often rather complex; for example, improvements may be sought in creep, wear, fracture toughness, thermal stability, etc [2].

Fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) are composites used in almost every type of advanced engineering structure, with their usage ranging from aircraft, helicopters and spacecraft through to boats, ships and offshore platforms and to automobiles, sports goods, chemical processing equipment and civil infrastructure such as bridges and buildings. The usage of FRP composites continues to grow at an impressive rate as these materials are used more in their existing markets and become established in relatively new markets such as biomedical devices and civil structures. A key factor driving the increased applications of composites over the recent years is the development of new advanced forms of FRP materials. This includes developments in high performance resin systems and new styles of reinforcement, such as carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles. This book provides an up-to-date account of the fabrication, mechanical properties, delamination resistance, impact tolerance and applications of 3D FRP composites [3].

The fibre reinforced polymer composites (FRPs) are increasingly being considered as an enhancement to and/or substitute for infrastructure components or systems that are constructed of traditional civil engineering materials, namely concrete and steel. FRP composites are lightweight, no-corrosive, exhibit high specific strength and specific stiffness, are easily constructed, and can be tailored to satisfy performance requirements. Due to these advantageous characteristics, FRP composites have been included in new construction and rehabilitation of structures through its use as reinforcement in concrete, bridge decks, modular structures, formwork, and external reinforcement for strengthening and seismic upgrade [4].

The applicability of Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) reinforcements to concrete structures as a substitute for steel bars or prestressing tendons has been actively studied in numerous research laboratories and professional organizations around the world. FRP reinforcements offer a number of advantages such as corrosion resistance, non-magnetic properties, high tensile strength, lightweight and ease of handling. However, they generally have a linear elastic response in tension up to failure (described as a brittle failure) and a relatively poor transverse or shear resistance. They also have poor resistance to fire and when exposed to high temperatures. They loose significant strength upon bending, and they are sensitive to stress-rupture effects. Moreover, their cost, whether considered per unit weight or on the basis of force carrying capacity, is high in comparison to conventional steel reinforcing bars or prestressing tendons. From a structural engineering viewpoint, the most serious problems with FRP reinforcements are the lack of plastic behavior and the very low shear strength in the transverse direction. Such characteristics may lead to premature tendon rupture, particularly when combined effects are present, such as at shear-cracking planes in reinforced concrete beams where dowel action exists. The dowel action reduces residual tensile and shear resistance in the tendon. Solutions and limitations of use have been offered and continuous improvements are expected in the future. The unit cost of FRP reinforcements is expected to decrease significantly with increased market share and demand. However, even today, there are applications where FRP reinforcements are cost effective and justifiable. Such cases include the use of bonded FRP sheets or plates in repair and strengthening of concrete structures, and the use of FRP meshes or textiles or fabrics in thin cement products. The cost of repair and rehabilitation of a structure is always, in relative terms, substantially higher than the cost of the initial structure. Repair generally requires a relatively small volume of repair materials but a relatively high commitment in labor. Moreover the cost of labor in developed countries is so high that the cost of material becomes secondary. Thus the highest the performance and durability of the repair material is, the more cost-effective is the repair. This implies that material cost is not really an issue in repair and that the fact that FRP repair materials are costly is not a constraining drawback [5].

When considering only energy and material resources it appears, on the surface, the argument for FRP composites in a sustainable built environment is questionable. However, such a conclusion needs to be evaluated in terms of potential advantages present in use of FRP composites related to considerations such as:

  • Higher strength

  • Lighter weight

  • Higher performance

  • Longer lasting

  • Rehabilitating existing structures and extending their life

  • Seismic upgrades

  • Defense systems

  • Space systems

  • Ocean environments

In the case of FRP composites, environmental concerns appear to be a barrier to its feasibility as a sustainable material especially when considering fossil fuel depletion, air pollution, smog, and acidification associated with its production. In addition, the ability to recycle FRP composites is limited and, unlike steel and timber, structural components cannot be reused to perform a similar function in another structure. However, evaluating the environmental impact of FRP composites in infrastructure applications, specifically through life cycle analysis, may reveal direct and indirect benefits that are more competitive than conventional materials.

Composite materials have developed greatly since they were first introduced. However, before composite materials can be used as an alternative to conventional materials as part of a sustainable environment a number of needs remain.

  • Availability of standardized durability characterization data for FRP composite materials.

  • Integration of durability data and methods for service life prediction of structural members utilizing FRP composites.

  • Development of methods and techniques for materials selection based on life cycle assessments of structural components and systems.

Ultimately, in order for composites to truly be considered a viable alternative, they must be structurally and economically feasible. Numerous studies regarding the structural feasibility of composite materials are widely available in literature [6]. However, limited studies are available on the economic and environmental feasibility of these materials from the perspective of a life cycle approach, since short term data is available or only economic costs are considered in the comparison. Additionally, the long term affects of using composite materials needs to be determined. The byproducts of the production, the sustainability of the constituent materials, and the potential to recycle composite materials needs to be assessed in order to determine of composite materials can be part of a sustainable environment. Therefore in this chapter describe the physicochemical properties of polymers and composites more used in Civil Engineering. The theme will be addressed in a simple and basic for better understanding.

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2. Manufactured process and basic concepts

The synthetic polymers are generally manufactured by polycondensation, polymerization or polyaddition. The polymers combined with various agents to enhance or in any way alter the material properties of polymers the result is referred to as a plastic. The Composite plastics can be of homogeneous or heterogeneous mix. Composite plastics refer to those types of plastics that result from bonding two or more homogeneous materials with different material properties to derive a final product with certain desired material and mechanical properties. The Fibre reinforced plastics (or fiber reinforced polymers) are a category of composite plastics that specifically use fibre materials (not mix with polymer) to mechanically enhance the strength and elasticity of plastics. The original plastic material without fibre reinforcement is known as the matrix. The matrix is a tough but relatively weak plastic that is reinforced by stronger stiffer reinforcing filaments or fibres. The extent that strength and elasticity are enhanced in a fibre reinforced plastic depends on the mechanical properties of the fibre and matrix, their volume relative to one another, and the fibre length and orientation within the matrix. Reinforcement of the matrix occurs by definition when the FRP material exhibits increased strength or elasticity relative to the strength and elasticity of the matrix alone.

Polymers are different from other construction materials like ceramics and metals, because of their macromolecular nature. The covalently bonded, long chain structure makes them macromolecules and determines, via the weight averaged molecular weight, Mw, their processability, like spin-, blow-, deep draw-, generally melt-formability. The number averaged molecular weight, Mn, determines the mechanical strength, and high molecular weights are beneficial for properties like strain-to-break, impact resistance, wear, etc. Thus, natural limits are met, since too high molecular weights yield too high shear and elongational viscosities that make polymers inprocessable. Prime examples are the very useful poly-tetra-fluor-ethylenes, PTFE’s, and ultrahigh-molecular-weight-poly-ethylenes, UHMWPE’s, and not only garbage bags are made of polyethylene, PE, but also high-performance fibers that are even used for bullet proof vests (alternatively made from, also inprocessable in the melt, rigid aromatic polyamides). The resulting mechanical properties of these high performance fibers, with moduli of 150 GPa and strengths of up to 4 GPa, represent the optimal use of what the potential of the molecular structure of polymers yields, combined with their low density. Thinking about polymers, it becomes clear why living nature used the polymeric concept to build its structures, and not only in high strength applications like wood, silk or spider-webs [7].

2.1. Polymers

The linking of small molecules (monomers) to make larger molecules is a polymer. Polymerization requires that each small molecule have at least two reaction points or functional groups. There are two distinct major types of polymerization processes, condensation polymerization, in which the chain growth is accompanied by elimination of small molecules such as H2O or CH3OH, and addition polymerization, in which the polymer is formed without the loss of other materials. There are many variants and subclasses of polymerization reactions.

The polymer chains can be classified in linear polymer chain, branched polymer chain, and cross-linked polymer chain. The structure of the repeating unit is the difunctional monomeric unit, or “mer.” In the presence of catalysts or initiators, the monomer yields a polymer by the joining together of n-mers. If n is a small number, 2–10, the products are dimers, trimers, tetramers, or oligomers, and the materials are usually gases, liquids, oils, or brittle solids. In most solid polymers, n has values ranging from a few score to several hundred thousand, and the corresponding molecular weights range from a few thousand to several million. The end groups of this example of addition polymers are shown to be fragments of the initiator. If only one monomer is polymerized, the product is called a homopolymer. The polymerization of a mixture of two monomers of suitable reactivity leads to the formation of a copolymer, a polymer in which the two types of mer units have entered the chain in a more or less random fashion. If chains of one homopolymer are chemically joined to chains of another, the product is called a block or graft copolymer.

Isotactic and syndiotactic (stereoregular) polymers are formed in the presence of complex catalysts, or by changing polymerization conditions, for example, by lowering the temperature. The groups attached to the chain in a stereoregular polymer are in a spatially ordered arrangement. The regular structures of the isotactic and syndiotactic forms make them often capable of crystallization. The crystalline melting points of isotactic polymers are often substantially higher than the softening points of the atactic product.

The spatially oriented polymers can be classified in atactic (random; dlldl or lddld, and so on), syndiotactic (alternating; dldl, and so on), and isotactic (right- or left-handed; dddd, or llll, and so on). For illustration, the heavily marked bonds are assumed to project up from the paper, and the dotted bonds down. Thus in a fully syndiotactic polymer, asymmetric carbons alternate in their left- or right-handedness (alternating d, l configurations), while in an isotactic polymer, successive carbons have the same steric configuration (d or l). Among the several kinds of polymerization catalysis, free-radical initiation has been most thoroughly studied and is most widely employed. Atactic polymers are readily formed by free-radical polymerization, at moderate temperatures, of vinyl and diene monomers and some of their derivatives. Some polymerizations can be initiated by materials, often called ionic catalysts, which contain highly polar reactive sites or complexes. The term heterogeneous catalyst is often applicable to these materials because many of the catalyst systems are insoluble in monomers and other solvents. These polymerizations are usually carried out in solution from which the polymer can be obtained by evaporation of the solvent or by precipitation on the addition of a nonsolvent. A distinguishing feature of complex catalysts is the ability of some representatives of each type to initiate stereoregular polymerization at ordinary temperatures or to cause the formation of polymers which can be crystallized [1, 6].

2.1.1. Polymerization

Polymerization, emulsion polymerization any process in which relatively small molecules, called monomers, combine chemically to produce a very large chainlike or network molecule, called a polymer. The monomer molecules may be all alike, or they may represent two, three, or more different compounds. Usually at least 100 monomer molecules must be combined to make a product that has certain unique physical properties-such as elasticity, high tensile strength, or the ability to form fibres-that differentiate polymers from substances composed of smaller and simpler molecules; often, many thousands of monomer units are incorporated in a single molecule of a polymer. The formation of stable covalent chemical bonds between the monomers sets polymerization apart from other processes, such as crystallization, in which large numbers of molecules aggregate under the influence of weak intermolecular forces.

Two classes of polymerization usually are distinguished. In condensation polymerization, each step of the process is accompanied by formation of a molecule of some simple compound, often water. In addition polymerization, monomers react to form a polymer without the formation of by-products. Addition polymerizations usually are carried out in the presence of catalysts, which in certain cases exert control over structural details that have important effects on the properties of the polymer [8].

Linear polymers, which are composed of chainlike molecules, may be viscous liquids or solids with varying degrees of crystallinity; a number of them can be dissolved in certain liquids, and they soften or melt upon heating. Cross-linked polymers, in which the molecular structure is a network, are thermosetting resins (i.e., they form under the influence of heat but, once formed, do not melt or soften upon reheating) that do not dissolve in solvents. Both linear and cross-linked polymers can be made by either addition or condensation polymerization.

2.1.2. Polycondensation

The polycondensation a process for the production of polymers from bifunctional and polyfunctional compounds (monomers), accompanied by the elimination of low-molecular weight by-products (for example, water, alcohols, and hydrogen halides). A typical example of polycondensation is the synthesis of complex polyester.

The process is called homopolycondensation if the minimum possible number of monomer types for a given case participates, and this number is usually two. If at least one monomer more than the number required for the given reaction participates in polycondensation, the process is called copolycondensation. Polycondensation in which only bifunctional compounds participate leads to the formation of linear macromolecules and is called linear polycondensation. If molecules with three or more functional groups participate in polycondensation, three-dimensional structures are formed and the process is called three-dimensional polycondensation. In cases where the degree of completion of polycondensation and the mean length of the macromolecules are limited by the equilibrium concentration of the reagents and reaction products, the process is called equilibrium (reversible) polycondensation. If the limiting factors are kinetic rather than thermodynamic, the process is called nonequilibrium (irreversible) polycondensation.

Polycondensation is often complicated by side reactions, in which both the original monomers and the polycondensation products (oligomers and polymers) may participate. Such reactions include the reaction of monomer or oligomer with a mono-functional compound (which may be present as an impurity), intramolecular cyclization (ring closure), and degradation of the macromolecules of the resultant polymer. The rate competition of polycondensation and the side reactions determines the molecular weight, yield, and molecular weight distribution of the polycondensation polymer.

Polycondensation is characterized by disappearance of the monomer in the early stages of the process and a sharp increase in molecular weight, in spite of a slight change in the extent of conversion in the region of greater than 95-percent conversion.

A necessary condition for the formation of macro-molecular polymers in linear polycondensation is the equivalence of the initial functional groups that react with one another.

Polycondensation is accomplished by one of three methods:

  1. in a melt, when a mixture of the initial compounds is heated for a long period to 10°-20°C above the melting (softening) point of the resultant polymer;

  2. in solution, when the monomers are present in the same phase in the solute state;

  3. on the phase boundary between two immiscible liquids, in which one of the initial compounds is found in each of the liquid phases (interphase polycondensation).

Polycondensation processes play an important role in nature and technology. Polycondensation or similar reactions are the basis for the biosynthesis of the most important biopolymers-proteins, nucleic acids, and cellulose. Polycondensation is widely used in industry for the production of polyesters (polyethylene terephthalate, polycarbonates, and alkyd resins), polyamides, phenol-formaldehyde resins, urea-formaldehyde resins, and certain silicones [9]. In the period 1965-70, polycondensation acquired great importance in connection with the development of industrial production of a series of new polymers, including heat-resistant polymers (polyarylates, aromatic polyimides, polyphe-nylene oxides, and polysulfones).

2.1.3. Polyaddition

The polyaddition reactions are similar to polycondensation reactions because they are also step reactions, however without splitting off low molecular weight by-products. The reaction is exothermic rather than endothermic and therefore cannot be stopped at will. Typical for polyaddition reaction is that individual atoms, usually H-atoms, wander from one monomer to another as the two monomers combine through a covalent bond. The monomers, as in polycondensation reactions, have to be added in stoichiometric amounts. These reactions do not start spontaneously and they are slow.

Polyaddition does not play a significant role in the production of thermoplastics. It is commonly encountered with cross-linked polymers. Polyurethane, which can be either a thermoplastic or thermosets, is synthesized by the reaction of multi-functional isocyanates with multifunctional amines or alcohol. Thermosetting epoxy resins are formed by polyaddition of epoxides with curing agents, such as amines and acid anhydrides.

In comparing chain reaction polymerization with the other two types of polymerization the following principal differences should be noted: Chain reaction polymerization, or simply called polymerization, is a chain reaction as the name implies. Only individual monomer molecules add to a reactive growing chain end, except for recombination of two radical chain ends or reactions of a reactive chain end with an added modifier molecule. The activation energy for chain initiation is much grater than for the subsequent growth reaction and growth, therefore, occurs very rapidly.

2.2. Composites

Composite is any material made of more than one component. There are a lot of composites around you. Concrete is a composite. It's made of cement, gravel, and sand, and often has steel rods inside to reinforce it. Those shiny balloons you get in the hospital when you're sick are made of a composite, which consists of a polyester sheet and an aluminum foil sheet, made into a sandwich. The polymer composites made from polymers, or from polymers along with other kinds of materials [7]. But specifically the fiber-reinforced composites are materials in which a fiber made of one material is embedded in another material.

2.2.1. Polymer composites

The polymer composites are any of the combinations or compositions that comprise two or more materials as separate phases, at least one of which is a polymer. By combining a polymer with another material, such as glass, carbon, or another polymer, it is often possible to obtain unique combinations or levels of properties. Typical examples of synthetic polymeric composites include glass-, carbon-, or polymer-fiber-reinforced, thermoplastic or thermosetting resins, carbon-reinforced rubber, polymer blends, silica- or mica-reinforced resins, and polymer-bonded or -impregnated concrete or wood. It is also often useful to consider as composites such materials as coatings (pigment-binder combinations) and crystalline polymers (crystallites in a polymer matrix). Typical naturally occurring composites include wood (cellulosic fibers bonded with lignin) and bone (minerals bonded with collagen). On the other hand, polymeric compositions compounded with a plasticizer or very low proportions of pigments or processing aids are not ordinarily considered as composites.

Typically, the goal is to improve strength, stiffness, or toughness, or dimensional stability by embedding particles or fibers in a matrix or binding phase. A second goal is to use inexpensive, readily available fillers to extend a more expensive or scarce resin; this goal is increasingly important as petroleum supplies become costlier and less reliable. Still other applications include the use of some filler such as glass spheres to improve processability, the incorporation of dry-lubricant particles such as molybdenum sulfide to make a self-lubricating bearing, and the use of fillers to reduce permeability.

The most common fiber-reinforced polymer composites are based on glass fibers, cloth, mat, or roving embedded in a matrix of an epoxy or polyester resin. Reinforced thermosetting resins containing boron, polyaramids, and especially carbon fibers confer especially high levels of strength and stiffness. Carbon-fiber composites have a relative stiffness five times that of steel. Because of these excellent properties, many applications are uniquely suited for epoxy and polyester composites, such as components in new jet aircraft, parts for automobiles, boat hulls, rocket motor cases, and chemical reaction vessels.

Although the most dramatic properties are found with reinforced thermosetting resins such as epoxy and polyester resins, significant improvements can be obtained with many reinforced thermoplastic resins as well. Polycarbonates, polyethylene, and polyesters are among the resins available as glass-reinforced composition. The combination of inexpensive, one-step fabrication by injection molding, with improved properties has made it possible for reinforced thermoplastics to replace metals in many applications in appliances, instruments, automobiles, and tools.

In the development of other composite systems, various matrices are possible; for example, polyimide resins are excellent matrices for glass fibers, and give a high- performance composite. Different fibers are of potential interest, including polymers [such as poly(vinyl alcohol)], single-crystal ceramic whiskers (such as sapphire), and various metallic fibers.

Long ago, people living in South and Central America had used natural rubber latex, polyisoprene, to make things like gloves and boots, as well as rubber balls which they used to play games that were a lot like modern basketball. He took two layers of cotton fabric and embedded them in natural rubber, also known as polyisoprene, making a three-layered sandwich like the one you see on your right (Remember, cotton is made up of a natural polymer called cellulose). This made for good raincoats because, while the rubber made it waterproof, the cotton layers made it comfortable to wear, to make a material that has the properties of both its components. In this case, we combine the water-resistance of polyisoprene and the comfort of cotton.

Modern composites are usually made of two components, a fiber and matrix. The fiber is most often glass, but sometimes Kevlar, carbon fiber, or polyethylene. The matrix is usually a thermoset like an epoxy resin, polydicyclopentadiene, or a polyimide. The fiber is embedded in the matrix in order to make the matrix stronger. Fiber-reinforced composites have two things going for them. They are strong and light. They are often stronger than steel, but weigh much less. This means that composites can be used to make automobiles lighter, and thus much more fuel efficient.

A common fiber-reinforced composite is FiberglasTM. Its matrix is made by reacting polyester with carbon-carbon double bonds in its backbone, and styrene. We pour a mix of the styrene and polyester over a mass of glass fibers.

The styrene and the double bonds in the polyester react by free radical vinyl polymerization to form a crosslinked resin. The glass fibers are trapped inside, where they act as a reinforcement. In FiberglasTM the fibers are not lined up in any particular direction. They are just a tangled mass, like you see on the right. But we can make the composite stronger by lining up all the fibers in the same direction. Oriented fibers do some weird things to the composite. When you pull on the composite in the direction of the fibers, the composite is very strong. But if you pull on it at right angles to the fiber direction, it is not very strong at all [8-9]. This is not always bad, because sometimes we only need the composite to be strong in one direction. Sometimes the item you are making will only be under stress in one direction. But sometimes we need strength in more than one direction. So we simply point the fibers in more than one direction. We often do this by using a woven fabric of the fibers to reinforce the composite. The woven fibers give a composite good strength in many directions.

The polymeric matrix holds the fibers together. A loose bundle of fibers would not be of much use. Also, though fibers are strong, they can be brittle. The matrix can absorb energy by deforming under stress. This is to say, the matrix adds toughness to the composite. And finally, while fibers have good tensile strength (that is, they are strong when you pull on them), they usually have awful compressional strength. That is, they buckle when you squash them. The matrix gives compressional strength to the composite.

Not all fibers are the same. Now it may seem strange that glass is used as reinforcement, as glass is really easy to break. But for some reason, when glass is spun into really tiny fibers, it acts very different. Glass fibers are strong, and flexible.

Still, there are stronger fibers out there. This is a good thing, because sometimes glass just isn't strong and tough enough. For some things, like airplane parts, that undergo a lot of stress, you need to break out the fancy fibers. When cost is no object, you can use stronger, but more expensive fibers, like KevlarTM, carbon fiber. Carbon fiber (SpectraTM) is usually stronger than KevlarTM, that is, it can withstand more force without breaking. But KevlarTM tends to be tougher. This means it can absorb more energy without breaking. It can stretch a little to keep from breaking, more so than carbon fiber can. But SpectraTM, which is a kind of polyethylene, is stronger and tougher than both carbon fiber and KevlarTM.

Different jobs call for different matrices. The unsaturated polyester/styrene systems at are one example. They are fine for everyday applications. Chevrolet Corvette bodies are made from composites using unsaturated polyester matrices and glass fibers. But they have some drawbacks. They shrink a good deal when they're cured, they can absorb water very easily, and their impact strength is low.

2.2.2. Biocomposites

For many decades, the residential construction field has used timber as its main source of building material for the frames of modern American homes. The American timber industry produced a record 49.5 billion board feet of lumber in 1999, and another 48.0 billion board feet in 2002. At the same time that lumber production is peaking, the home ownership rate reached a record high of 69.2%, with over 977,000 homes being sold in 2002. Because residential construction accounts for one-third of the total softwood lumber use in the United States, there is an increasing demand for alternate materials. Use of sawdust not only provides an alternative but also increases the use of the by product efficiently. Wood plastic composites (WPC) is a relatively new category of materials that covers a broad range of composite materials utilizing an organic resin binder (matrix) and fillers composed of cellulose materials. The new and rapidly developing biocomposite materials are high technology products, which have one unique advantage – the wood filler can include sawdust and scrap wood products. Consequently, no additional wood resources are needed to manufacture biocomposites. Waste products that would traditraditionally cost money for proper disposal, now become a beneficial resource, allowing recycling to be both profitable and environmentally conscious. The use of biocomposites and WPC has increased rapidly all over the world, with the end users for these composites in the construction, motor vehicle, and furniture industries. One of the primary problems related to the use of biocomposites is the flammability of the two main components (binder and filler). If a flame retardant were added, this would require the adhesion of the fiber and the matrix not to be disturbed by the retardant. The challenge is to develop a composite that will not burn and will maintain its level of mechanical performance. In lieu of organic matrix compounds, inorganic matrices can be utilized to improve the fire resistance. Inorganic-based wood composites are those that consist of a mineral mix as the binder system. Such inorganic binder systems include gypsum and Portland cement, both of which are highly resistant to fire and insects. The main disadvantage with these systems is the maximum amount of sawdust or fibers than can be incorporated is low. One relatively new type of inorganic matrix is potassium aluminosilicate, an environmentally friendly compound made from naturally occurring materials. The Federal Aviation Administration has investigated the feasibility of using this matrix in commercial aircraft due to its ability to resist temperatures of up to 1000 ºC without generating smoke, and its ability to enable carbon composites to withstand temperatures of 800 ºC and maintain 63% of its original flexural strength. Potassium aluminosilicate matrices are compatible with many common building material including clay brick, masonry, concrete, steel, titanium, balsa, oak, pine, and particleboard [10].

2.3. Fiberglass

Fiberglass refers to a group of products made from individual glass fibers combined into a variety of forms. Glass fibers can be divided into two major groups according to their geometry: continuous fibers used in yarns and textiles, and the discontinuous (short) fibers used as batts, blankets, or boards for insulation and filtration. Fiberglass can be formed into yarn much like wool or cotton, and woven into fabric which is sometimes used for draperies. Fiberglass textiles are commonly used as a reinforcement material for molded and laminated plastics. Fiberglass wool, a thick, fluffy material made from discontinuous fibers, is used for thermal insulation and sound absorption. It is commonly found in ship and submarine bulkheads and hulls; automobile engine compartments and body panel liners; in furnaces and air conditioning units; acoustical wall and ceiling panels; and architectural partitions. Fiberglass can be tailored for specific applications such as Type E (electrical), used as electrical insulation tape, textiles and reinforcement; Type C (chemical), which has superior acid resistance, and Type T, for thermal insulation [11].

Though commercial use of glass fiber is relatively recent, artisans created glass strands for decorating goblets and vases during the Renaissance. A French physicist, Rene-Antoine Ferchault de Reaumur, produced textiles decorated with fine glass strands in 1713. Glass wool, a fluffy mass of discontinuous fiber in random lengths, was first produced in Europe in 1900, using a process that involved drawing fibers from rods horizontally to a revolving drum [12].

The basic raw materials for fiberglass products are a variety of natural minerals and manufactured chemicals. The major ingredients are silica sand, limestone, and soda ash. Other ingredients may include calcined alumina, borax, feldspar, nepheline syenite, magnesite, and kaolin clay, among others. Silica sand is used as the glass former, and soda ash and limestone help primarily to lower the melting temperature. Other ingredients are used to improve certain properties, such as borax for chemical resistance. Waste glass, also called cullet, is also used as a raw material. The raw materials must be carefully weighed in exact quantities and thoroughly mixed together (called batching) before being melted into glass.

2.3.1. The manufacturing process

2.3.1.1. Melting

Once the batch is prepared, it is fed into a furnace for melting. The furnace may be heated by electricity, fossil fuel, or a combination of the two. Temperature must be precisely controlled to maintain a smooth, steady flow of glass. The molten glass must be kept at a higher temperature (about 1371 °C) than other types of glass in order to be formed into fiber. Once the glass becomes molten, it is transferred to the forming equipment via a channel (forehearth) located at the end of the furnace [13].

2.3.1.2. Forming into fibers

Several different processes are used to form fibers, depending on the type of fiber. Textile fibers may be formed from molten glass directly from the furnace, or the molten glass may be fed first to a machine that forms glass marbles of about 0.62 inch (1.6 cm) in diameter. These marbles allow the glass to be inspected visually for impurities. In both the direct melt and marble melt process, the glass or glass marbles are fed through electrically heated bushings (also called spinnerets). The bushing is made of platinum or metal alloy, with anywhere from 200 to 3,000 very fine orifices. The molten glass passes through the orifices and comes out as fine filaments [13].

2.3.1.3. Continuous-filament process

A long, continuous fiber can be produced through the continuous-filament process. After the glass flows through the holes in the bushing, multiple strands are caught up on a high-speed winder. The winder revolves at about 3 km a minute, much faster than the rate of flow from the bushings. The tension pulls out the filaments while still molten, forming strands a fraction of the diameter of the openings in the bushing. A chemical binder is applied, which helps keep the fiber from breaking during later processing. The filament is then wound onto tubes. It can now be twisted and plied into yarn [14].

2.3.1.4. Staple-fiber process

An alternative method is the staplefiber process. As the molten glass flows through the bushings, jets of air rapidly cool the filaments. The turbulent bursts of air also break the filaments into lengths of 20-38 cm. These filaments fall through a spray of lubricant onto a revolving drum, where they form a thin web. The web is drawn from the drum and pulled into a continuous strand of loosely assembled fibers [15]. This strand can be processed into yarn by the same processes used for wool and cotton.

2.3.1.5. Chopped fiber

Instead of being formed into yarn, the continuous or long-staple strand may be chopped into short lengths. The strand is mounted on a set of bobbins, called a creel, and pulled through a machine which chops it into short pieces. The chopped fiber is formed into mats to which a binder is added. After curing in an oven, the mat is rolled up. Various weights and thicknesses give products for shingles, built-up roofing, or decorative mats [16].

2.3.1.6. Glass wool

The rotary or spinner process is used to make glass wool. In this process, molten glass from the furnace flows into a cylindrical container having small holes. As the container spins rapidly, horizontal streams of glass flow out of the holes. The molten glass streams are converted into fibers by a downward blast of air, hot gas, or both. The fibers fall onto a conveyor belt, where they interlace with each other in a fleecy mass. This can be used for insulation, or the wool can be sprayed with a binder, compressed into the desired thickness, and cured in an oven. The heat sets the binder, and the resulting product may be a rigid or semi-rigid board, or a flexible bat [15-16].

2.3.1.7. Protective coatings

In addition to binders, other coatings are required for fiberglass products. Lubricants are used to reduce fiber abrasion and are either directly sprayed on the fiber or added into the binder. An anti-static composition is also sometimes sprayed onto the surface of fiberglass insulation mats during the cooling step. Cooling air drawn through the mat causes the anti-static agent to penetrate the entire thickness of the mat. The anti-static agent consists of two ingredients a material that minimizes the generation of static electricity, and a material that serves as a corrosion inhibitor and stabilizer.

Sizing is any coating applied to textile fibers in the forming operation, and may contain one or more components (lubricants, binders, or coupling agents). Coupling agents are used on strands that will be used for reinforcing plastics, to strengthen the bond to the reinforced material. Sometimes a finishing operation is required to remove these coatings, or to add another coating. For plastic reinforcements, sizings may be removed with heat or chemicals and a coupling agent applied. For decorative applications, fabrics must be heat treated to remove sizings and to set the weave. Dye base coatings are then applied before dying or printing [15-16].

2.3.1.8. Forming into shapes

Fiberglass products come in a wide variety of shapes, made using several processes. For example, fiberglass pipe insulation is wound onto rod-like forms called mandrels directly from the forming units, prior to curing. The mold forms, in lengths of 91 cm or less, are then cured in an oven. The cured lengths are then de-molded lengthwise, and sawn into specified dimensions. Facings are applied if required, and the product is packaged for shipment [17].

2.4. Carbon fibre

Carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer or carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP or CRP or often simply carbon fiber), is a very strong and light fiber-reinforced polymer which contains carbon fibers. Carbon fibres are created when polyacrylonitrile fibres (PAN), Pitch resins, or Rayon are carbonized (through oxidation and thermal pyrolysis) at high temperatures. Through further processes of graphitizing or stretching the fibres strength or elasticity can be enhanced respectively. Carbon fibres are manufactured in diameters analogous to glass fibres with diameters ranging from 9 to 17 μm. These fibres wound into larger threads for transportation and further production processes. Further production processes include weaving or braiding into carbon fabrics, cloths and mats analogous to those described for glass that can then be used in actual reinforcement processes. Carbon fibers are a new breed of high-strength materials. Carbon fiber has been described as a fiber containing at least 90% carbon obtained by the controlled pyrolysis of appropriate fibers. The existence of carbon fiber came into being in 1879 when Edison took out a patent for the manufacture of carbon filaments suitable for use in electric lamps [18].

2.4.1. Classification and types

Based on modulus, strength, and final heat treatment temperature, carbon fibers can be classified into the following categories:

  1. Based on carbon fiber properties, carbon fibers can be grouped into:

  • Ultra-high-modulus, type UHM (modulus >450Gpa)

  • High-modulus, type HM (modulus between 350-450Gpa)

  • Intermediate-modulus, type IM (modulus between 200-350Gpa)

  • Low modulus and high-tensile, type HT (modulus < 100Gpa, tensile strength > 3.0Gpa)

  • Super high-tensile, type SHT (tensile strength > 4.5Gpa)

  1. Based on precursor fiber materials, carbon fibers are classified into;

  • PAN-based carbon fibers

  • Pitch-based carbon fibers

  • Mesophase pitch-based carbon fibers

  • Isotropic pitch-based carbon fibers

  • Rayon-based carbon fibers

  • Gas-phase-grown carbon fibers

  1. Based on final heat treatment temperature, carbon fibers are classified into:

  • Type-I, high-heat-treatment carbon fibers (HTT), where final heat treatment temperature should be above 2000°C and can be associated with high-modulus type fiber.

  • Type-II, intermediate-heat-treatment carbon fibers (IHT), where final heat treatment temperature should be around or above 1500 °C and can be associated with high-strength type fiber.

  • Type-III, low-heat-treatment carbon fibers, where final heat treatment temperatures not greater than 1000 °C. These are low modulus and low strength materials [19].

2.4.2. Manufacture

In Textile Terms and Definitions, carbon fiber has been described as a fiber containing at least 90% carbon obtained by the controlled pyrolysis of appropriate fibers. The term "graphite fiber" is used to describe fibers that have carbon in excess of 99%. Large varieties of fibers called precursors are used to produce carbon fibers of different morphologies and different specific characteristics. The most prevalent precursors are polyacrylonitrile (PAN), cellulosic fibers (viscose rayon, cotton), petroleum or coal tar pitch and certain phenolic fibers.

Carbon fibers are manufactured by the controlled pyrolysis of organic precursors in fibrous form. It is a heat treatment of the precursor that removes the oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen to form carbon fibers. It is well established in carbon fiber literature that the mechanical properties of the carbon fibers are improved by increasing the crystallinity and orientation, and by reducing defects in the fiber. The best way to achieve this is to start with a highly oriented precursor and then maintain the initial high orientation during the process of stabilization and carbonization through tension [18-19].

2.4.2.1. Carbon fibers from polyacrylonitrile (PAN)

There are three successive stages in the conversion of PAN precursor into high-performance carbon fibers. Oxidative stabilization: The polyacrylonitrile precursor is first stretched and simultaneously oxidized in a temperature range of 200-300 °C. This treatment converts thermoplastic PAN to a non-plastic cyclic or ladder compound. Carbonization: After oxidation, the fibers are carbonized at about 1000 °C without tension in an inert atmosphere (normally nitrogen) for a few hours. During this process the non-carbon elements are removed as volatiles to give carbon fibers with a yield of about 50% of the mass of the original PAN. Graphitization: Depending on the type of fiber required, the fibers are treated at temperatures between 1500-3000 °C, which improves the ordering, and orientation of the crystallites in the direction of the fiber axis.

2.4.2.2. Carbon fibers from rayon

a- The conversion of rayon fibers into carbon fibers is three phase process

Stabilization: Stabilization is an oxidative process that occurs through steps. In the first step, between 25-150 °C, there is physical desorption of water. The next step is a dehydration of the cellulosic unit between 150-240 °C. Finally, thermal cleavage of the cyclosidic linkage and scission of ether bonds and some C-C bonds via free radical reaction (240-400 °C) and, thereafter, aromatization takes place.

Carbonization: Between 400 and 700 °C, the carbonaceous residue is converted into a graphite-like layer.

Graphitization: Graphitization is carried out under strain at 700-2700 °C to obtain high modulus fiber through longitudinal orientation of the planes.

b- The carbon fiber fabrication from pitch generally consists of the following four steps:

Pitch preparation: It is an adjustment in the molecular weight, viscosity, and crystal orientation for spinning and further heating.

Spinning and drawing: In this stage, pitch is converted into filaments, with some alignment in the crystallites to achieve the directional characteristics.

Stabilization: In this step, some kind of thermosetting to maintain the filament shape during pyrolysis. The stabilization temperature is between 250 and 400 °C.

Carbonization: The carbonization temperature is between 1000-1500 °C.

2.4.2.3. Carbon fibers in meltblown nonwovens

Carbon fibers made from the spinning of molten pitches are of interest because of the high carbon yield from the precursors and the relatively low cost of the starting materials. Stabilization in air and carbonization in nitrogen can follow the formation of melt-blown pitch webs. Processes have been developed with isotropic pitches and with anisotropic mesophase pitches. The mesophase pitch based and melt blown discontinuous carbon fibers have a peculiar structure. These fibers are characterized in that a large number of small domains, each domain having an average equivalent diameter from 0.03 mm to 1mm and a nearly unidirectional orientation of folded carbon layers, assemble to form a mosaic structure on the cross-section of the carbon fibers. The folded carbon layers of each domain are oriented at an angle to the direction of the folded carbon layers of the neighboring domains on the boundary [20].

2.4.2.4. Carbon fibers from isotropic pitch

The isotropic pitch or pitch-like material, i.e., molten polyvinyl chloride, is melt spun at high strain rates to align the molecules parallel to the fiber axis. The thermoplastic fiber is then rapidly cooled and carefully oxidized at a low temperature (<100 °C). The oxidation process is rather slow, to ensure stabilization of the fiber by cross-linking and rendering it infusible. However, upon carbonization, relaxation of the molecules takes place, producing fibers with no significant preferred orientation. This process is not industrially attractive due to the lengthy oxidation step, and only low-quality carbon fibers with no graphitization are produced. These are used as fillers with various plastics as thermal insulation materials [20].

2.4.2.5. Carbon fibers from anisotropic mesophase pitch

High molecular weight aromatic pitches, mainly anisotropic in nature, are referred to as mesophase pitches. The pitch precursor is thermally treated above 350°C to convert it to mesophase pitch, which contains both isotropic and anisotropic phases. Due to the shear stress occurring during spinning, the mesophase molecules orient parallel to the fiber axis. After spinning, the isotropic part of the pitch is made infusible by thermosetting in air at a temperature below it's softening point. The fiber is then carbonized at temperatures up to 1000 °C. The main advantage of this process is that no tension is required during the stabilization or the graphitization, unlike the case of rayon or PANs precursors [21].

2.4.2.6. Structure

The characterization of carbon fiber microstructure has been mainly been performed by x-ray scattering and electron microscopy techniques. In contrast to graphite, the structure of carbon fiber lacks any three dimensional order. In PAN-based fibers, the linear chain structure is transformed to a planar structure during oxidative stabilization and subsequent carbonization. Basal planes oriented along the fiber axis are formed during the carbonization stage. Wide-angle x-ray data suggests an increase in stack height and orientation of basal planes with an increase in heat treatment temperature. A difference in structure between the sheath and the core was noticed in a fully stabilized fiber. The skin has a high axial preferred orientation and thick crystallite stacking. However, the core shows a lower preferred orientation and a lower crystallite height [22].

2.4.2.7. Properties

In general, it is seen that the higher the tensile strength of the precursor the higher is the tenacity of the carbon fiber. Tensile strength and modulus are significantly improved by carbonization under strain when moderate stabilization is used. X-ray and electron diffraction studies have shown that in high modulus type fibers, the crystallites are arranged around the longitudinal axis of the fiber with layer planes highly oriented parallel to the axis. Overall, the strength of a carbon fiber depends on the type of precursor, the processing conditions, heat treatment temperature and the presence of flaws and defects. With PAN based carbon fibers, the strength increases up to a maximum of 1300 ºC and then gradually decreases. The modulus has been shown to increase with increasing temperature. PAN based fibers typically buckle on compression and form kink bands at the innermost surface of the fiber. However, similar high modulus type pitch-based fibers deform by a shear mechanism with kink bands formed at 45° to the fiber axis. Carbon fibers are very brittle. The layers in the fibers are formed by strong covalent bonds. The sheet-like aggregations allow easy crack propagation. On bending, the fiber fails at very low strain [23].

2.4.2.8. Applications

The two main applications of carbon fibers are in specialized technology, which includes aerospace and nuclear engineering, and in general engineering and transportation, which includes engineering components such as bearings, gears, cams, fan blades and automobile bodies. Recently, some new applications of carbon fibers have been found. Others include: decoration in automotive, marine, general aviation interiors, general entertainment and musical instruments and after-market transportation products. Conductivity in electronics technology provides additional new application [24].

The production of highly effective fibrous carbon adsorbents with low diameter, excluding or minimizing external and intra-diffusion resistance to mass transfer, and therefore, exhibiting high sorption rates is a challenging task. These carbon adsorbents can be converted into a wide variety of textile forms and nonwoven materials. Cheaper and newer versions of carbon fibers are being produced from new raw materials. Newer applications are also being developed for protective clothing (used in various chemical industries for work in extremely hostile environments), electromagnetic shielding and various other novel applications. The use of carbon fibers in Nonwovens is in a new possible application for high temperature fire-retardant insulation (eg: furnace material) [25].

2.5. Aramid-definition

Aliphatic polyamides are macromolecules whose structural units are characteristically interlinked by the amide linkage -NH-CO-. The nature of the structural unit constitutes a basis for classification. Aliphatic polyamides with structural units derived predominantly from aliphatic monomers are members of the generic class of nylons, whereas aromatic polyamides in which at least 85% of the amide linkages are directly adjacent to aromatic structures have been designated aramids. The U.S. Federal Trade Commission defines nylon fibers as ‘‘a manufactured fiber in which the fiber forming substance is a long chain synthetic polyamide in which less than 85% of the amide linkages (-CO-NH-) are attached directly to two aliphatic groups.’’ Polyamides that contain recurring amide groups as integral parts of the polymer backbone have been classified as condensation polymers regardless of the principal mechanisms entailed in the polymerization process. Though many reactions suitable for polyamide formation are known, commercially important nylons are obtained by processes related to either of two basic approaches: one entails the polycondensation of difunctional monomers utilizing either amino acids or stoichiometric pairs of dicarboxylic acids and diamines, and the other entails the ring-opening polymerization of lactams. The polyamides formed from diacids and diamines are generally described to be of the AABB format, whereas those derived from either amino acids or lactams are of the AB format.

The structure of polyamide fibers is defined by both chemical and physical parameters. The chemical parameters are related mainly to the constitution of the polyamide molecule and are concerned primarily with its monomeric units, end-groups, and molecular weight. The physical parameters are related essentially to chain conformation, orientation of both polymer molecule segments and aggregates, and to crystallinity [26]. This characteristic for single-chain aliphatic polyamides is determined by the structure of the monomeric units and the nature of end groups of the polymer molecules. The most important structural parameter of the noncrystalline (amorphous) phase is the glass transition temperature (Tg) since it has a considerable effect on both processing and properties of the polyamide fibers. It relates to a type of a glass–rubber transition and is defined as the temperature, or temperature range, at which mobility of chain segments or structural units commences. Thus it is a function of the chemical structure; in case of the linear aliphatic polyamides, it is a function of the number of CH2 units (mean spacing) between the amide groups. As the number of CH2 unit’s increases, Tg decreases. Although Tg is further affected by the nature of the crystalline phase, orientation, and molecular weight, it is associated only with what may be considered the amorphous phase.

Any process affecting this phase exerts a corresponding effect on the glass transition temperature. This is particularly evident in its response to the concentration of water absorbed in polyamides. An increase in water content results in a steady decrease of Tg toward a limiting value. This phenomenon may be explained by a mechanism that entails successive replacement of intercatenary hydrogen bonds in the amorphous phase with water. It may involve a sorption mechanism, according to which 3 mol of water interact with two neighboring amide groups [27].

The properties of aromatic polyamides differ significantly from those of their aliphatic counterparts. This led the U.S. Federal Trade Commission to adopt the term ‘‘aramid’’ to designate fibers of the aromatic polyamide type in which at least 85% of the amide linkages are attached directly to two aromatic rings.

The search for materials with very good thermal properties was the original reason for research into aromatic polyamides. Bond dissociation energies of C-C and C-N bonds in aromatic polyamides are ~20% higher than those in aliphatic polyamides. This is the reason why the decomposition temperature of poly(m-phenylene isophthalamide) MPDI exceeds 450 ºC. Conjugation between the amide group and the aromatic ring in poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide) “PPTA” increases chain rigidity as well as the decomposition temperature, which exceeds 550 ºC.

Obviously, hydrogen bonding and chain rigidity of these polymers translates to very high glass transition temperatures. Using low-molecular-weight polymers, Aharoni [19] measured glass transition temperatures of 272 ºC for MPDI and over 295 ºC for PPTA (which in this case had low crystallinity). Others have reported values as high as 4928 ºC. In most cases the measurement of Tg is difficult because PPTA is essentially 100% crystalline. As one would expect, these values are not strongly dependent on the molecular weight of the polymer above a DP of ~10 [22].

The same structural characteristics that are responsible for the excellent thermal properties of these materials are responsible for their limited solubility as well as good chemical resistance. PPTA is soluble only in strong acids like H2SO4, HF, and methanesulfonic acid. Preparation of this polymer via solution polymerization in amide solvents is accompanied by polymer precipitation. As expected, based on its structure, MPDI is easier to solubilize then PPTA. It is soluble in neat amide solvents like N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and dimethylacetamide (DMAc), but adding salts like CaCl2 or LiCl significantly enhances its solubility. The significant rigidity of the PPTA chain (as discussed above) leads to the formation of anisotropic solutions when the solvent is good enough to reach critical minimum solids concentration. The implications of this are discussed in greater detail later in this chapter. It is well known that chemical properties differ significantly between crystalline and noncrystalline materials of the same composition. In general, aramids have very good chemical resistance. Obviously, the amide bond is subject to a hydrolytic attack by acids and bases. Exposure to very strong oxidizing agents results in a significant strength loss of these fibers. In addition to crystallinity, structure consolidation affects the rate of degradation of these materials. The hydrophilicity of the amide group leads to a significant absorption of water by all aramids. While the chemistry is the driving factor, fiber structure also plays a very important role; for example, Kevlar 29 absorbs ~7% water, Kevlar 49~4%, and Kevlar 149 only 1%. Fukuda explored the relationship between fiber crystallinity and equilibrium moisture in great detail. Because of their aromatic character, aramids absorb UV light, which results in an oxidative color change. Substantial exposure can lead to the loss of yarn tensile properties. UV absorption by p-aramids is more pronounced than with m-aramids. In this case a self-screening phenomenon is observed, which makes thin structures more susceptible to degradation than thick ones. Very frequently p-aramids are covered with another material in the final application to protect them. The high degree of aromaticity of these materials also provides significant flame resistance. All commercial aramids have a limited oxygen index in the range of 28-32%, which compares with ~20% for aliphatic polyamides.

Typical properties of commercial aramid fibers are while yarns of m-aramids have tensile properties that are no greater than those of aliphatic polyamides, they do retain useful mechanical properties at significantly higher temperatures. The high glass transition temperature leads to low (less than 1%) shrinkage at temperatures below 250 ºC. In general, mechanical properties of m-aramid fibers are developed on drawing. This process produces fibers with a high degree of morphological homogeneity, which leads to very good fatigue properties. The mechanical properties of p-aramid fibers have been the subject of much study. This is because these fibers were the first examples of organic materials with a very high level of both strength and stiffness. These materials are practical confirmation that nearly perfect orientation and full chain extension are required to achieve mechanical properties approaching those predicted for chemical bonds. In general, the mechanical properties reflect a significant anisotropy of these fibers-covalent bonds in the direction of the fiber axis with hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces in the lateral direction [26].

Aramid-based reinforcement has been viewed as a more specialty product for applications requiring high modulus and where the potential for electrical conductivity would preclude the use of carbon; for example, aramid sheet is used for all tunnel repairs. Product forms include dry fabrics or unidirectional sheets as well as pre-cured strips or bars. Fabrics or sheets are applied to a concrete surface that has been smoothed (by grinding or blasting) and wetted with a resin (usually epoxy). The composite materials used for concrete infrastructure repair that was initiated in the mid 1980s. After air pockets are removed using rollers or flat, flexible squeegees, a second resin coat might be applied. Reinforcement of concrete structures is important in earthquake prone areas, although steel plate is the primary material used to reinforce and repair concrete structures, higher priced fiber-based sheet structures offer advantages for small sites where ease of handling and corrosion resistance are important. The high strength, modulus, and damage tolerance of aramid-reinforced sheets makes the fiber especially suitable for protecting structures prone to seismic activity. The use of aramid sheet also simplifies the application process. Sheets are light in weight and can be easily handled without heavy machinery and can be applied in confined working spaces. Sheets are also flexible, so surface smoothing and corner rounding of columns are less critical than for carbon fiber sheets [28].

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3. All process description

FRP involves two distinct processes, the first is the process whereby the fibrous material is manufactured and formed, and the second is the process whereby fibrous materials are bonded with the matrix during the molding process.

3.1. Fibre process

3.1.1. The manufacture of fibre fabric

Reinforcing Fibre is manufactured in both two dimensional and three dimensional orientations

  1. Two Dimensional Fibre Reinforced Polymer are characterized by a laminated structure in which the fibres are only aligned along the plane in x-direction and y-direction of the material. This means that no fibres are aligned in the through thickness or the z-direction, this lack of alignment in the through thickness can create a disadvantage in cost and processing. Costs and labour increase because conventional processing techniques used to fabricate composites, such as wet hand lay-up, autoclave and resin transfer molding, require a high amount of skilled labour to cut, stack and consolidate into a preformed component.

  2. Three-dimensional Fibre Reinforced Polymer composites are materials with three dimensional fibre structures that incorporate fibres in the x-direction, y-direction and z-direction. The development of three-dimensional orientations arose from industry's need to reduce fabrication costs, to increase through-thickness mechanical properties, and to improve impact damage tolerance; all were problems associated with two dimensional fibre reinforced polymers [28].

3.1.2. The manufacture of fibre preforms

Fibre preforms are how the fibres are manufactured before being bonded to the matrix. Fibre preforms are often manufactured in sheets, continuous mats, or as continuous filaments for spray applications. The four major ways to manufacture the fibre preform is though the textile processing techniques of Weaving, knitting, braiding and stitching.

  1. Weaving can be done in a conventional manner to produce two-dimensional fibres as well in a multilayer weaving that can create three-dimensional fibres. However, multilayer weaving is required to have multiple layers of warp yarns to create fibres in the z- direction creating a few disadvantages in manufacturing, namely the time to set up all the warp yarns on the loom. Therefore most multilayer weaving is currently used to produce relatively narrow width products or high value products where the cost of the preform production is acceptable. Another Fibre-reinforced plastic 3D one of the main problems facing the use of multilayer woven fabrics is the difficulty in producing a fabric that contains fibres oriented with angles other than 0º and 90º to each other respectively.

  2. The second major way of manufacturing fibre preforms is braiding. Braiding is suited to the manufacture of narrow width flat or tubular fabric and is not as capable as weaving in the production of large volumes of wide fabrics. Braiding is done over top of mandrels that vary in cross-sectional shape or dimension along their length. Braiding is limited to objects about a brick in size. Unlike the standard weaving process, braiding can produce fabric that contains fibres at 45 degrees angles to one another. Braiding three-dimensional fibres can be done using four steps, two-step or Multilayer Interlock Braiding. Four step or row and column braiding utilizes a flat bed containing rows and columns of yarn carriers that form the shape of the desired preform. Additional carriers are added to the outside of the array, the precise location and quantity of which depends upon the exact preform shape and structure required. There are four separate sequences of row and column motion, which act to interlock the yarns and produce the braided preform. The yarns are mechanically forced into the structure between each step to consolidate the structure in a similar process to the use of a reed in weaving.Two-step braiding is unlike the four step process because the two-step includes a large number of yarns fixed in the axial direction and a fewer number of braiding yarns. The process consists of two steps in which the braiding carriers move completely through the structure between the axial carriers. This relatively simple sequence of motions is capable of forming performs of essentially any shape, including circular and hollow shapes. Unlike the four steps process the two steps process does not require mechanical compaction the motions involved in the process allows the braid to be pulled tight by yarn tension alone. The last type of braiding is multi-layer interlocking braiding that consists of a number of standard circular braiders being joined together to form a cylindrical braiding frame. This frame has a number of parallel braiding tracks around the circumference of the cylinder but the mechanism allows the transfer of yarn carriers between adjacent tracks forming a multilayer braided fabric with yarns interlocking to adjacent layers.

The multilayer interlock braid differs from both the four step and two-step braids in that the interlocking yarns are primarily in the plane of the structure and thus do not significantly reduce the in-plane properties of the perform. The four step and two step processes produce a greater degree of interlinking as the braiding yarns travel through the thickness of the preform, but therefore contribute less to the in-plane performance of the preform. A disadvantage of the multilayer interlock equipment is that due to the conventional sinusoidal movement of the yarn carriers to form the preform, the equipment is not able to have the density of yarn carriers that is possible with the two step and four step machines.

  1. Knitting fibre preforms can be done with the traditional methods of Warp and [Weft] Knitting, and the fabric produced is often regarded by many as two-dimensional fabric, but machines with two or more needle beds are capable of producing multilayer fabrics with yams that traverse between the layers. Developments in electronic controls for needle selection and knit loop transfer and in the sophisticated mechanisms that allow specific areas of the fabric to be held and their movement controlled. This has allowed the fabric to form itself into the required three-dimensional perform shape with a minimum of material wastage.

  2. Stitching is arguably the simplest of the four main textile manufacturing techniques and one that can be performed with the smallest investment in specialized machinery. Basically the stitching process consists of inserting a needle, carrying the stitch thread, through a stack of fabric layers to form a 3D structure. The advantages of stitching are that it is possible to stitch both dry and prepreg fabric, although the tackiness of prepare makes the process difficult and generally creates more damage within the prepreg material than in the dry fabric. Stitching also utilizes the standard two-dimensional fabrics that are commonly in use within the composite industry therefore there is a sense of familiarity concerning the material systems. The use of standard fabric also allows a greater degree of flexibility in the fabric lay-up of the component than is possible with the other textile processes, which have restrictions on the fibre orientations that can be produced.

3.1.3. Molding processes

There are two distinct categories of molding processes using FRP plastics; this includes composite molding and wet molding. Composite molding uses Prepreg FRP, meaning the plastics are fibre reinforced before being put through further molding processes. Sheets of Prepreg FRP are heated or compressed in different ways to create geometric shapes. Wet molding combines fibre reinforcement and the matrix or resist during the molding process. The different forms of composite and wet molding, are listed below.

3.2. Composite molding

3.2.1. Bladder molding

Individual sheets of prepreg material are laid -up and placed in a female-style mould along with a balloon-like bladder. The mould is closed and placed in a heated press. Finally, the bladder is pressurized forcing the layers of material against the mould walls. The part is cured and removed from the hot mould. Bladder molding is a closed molding process with a relatively short cure cycle between 15 and 60 minutes making it ideal for making complex hollow geometric shapes at competitive costs.

3.2.2. Compression molding

A "preform" or "charge", of SMC, BMC or sometimes prepreg fabric, is placed into mould cavity. The mould is closed and the material is compacted & cured inside by pressure and heat. Compression molding offers excellent detailing for geometric shapes ranging from pattern and relief detailing to complex curves and creative forms, to precision engineering all within a maximum curing time of 20 minutes.

3.2.3. Autoclave − Vacuum bag

Individual sheets of prepreg material are laid-up and placed in an open mold. The material is covered with release film, bleeder/breather material and a vacuum bag. A vacuum is pulled on part and the entire mould is placed into an autoclave (heated pressure vessel). The part is cured with a continuous vacuum to extract entrapped gasses from laminate. This is a very common process in the aerospace industry because it affords precise control over the molding process due to a long slow cure cycle that is anywhere from one to two hours. This precise control creates the exact laminate geometric forms needed to ensure strength and safety in the aerospace industry, but it is also slow and lab our intensive, meaning costs often confine it to the aerospace industry.

3.2.4. Mandrel wrapping

Sheets of prepreg material are wrapped around a steel or aluminum mandrel. The prepreg material is compacted by nylon or polypropylene cello tape. Parts are typically batch cured by hanging in an oven. After cure the cello and mandrel are removed leaving a hollow carbon tube. This process creates strong and robust hollow carbon tubes.

3.2.5. Wet layup

Fibre reinforcing fabric is placed in an open mould and then saturated with a wet (resin) by pouring it over the fabric and working it into the fabric and mould. The mould is then left so that the resin will cure, usually at room temperature, though heat is sometimes used to ensure a proper curing process. Glass fibres are most commonly used for this process, the results are widely known as fibreglass, and are used to make common products like skis, canoes, kayaks and surf boards.

3.2.6. Chopper gun

Continuous strand of fibreglass are pushed through a hand-held gun that both chops the strands and combines them with a catalyzed resin such as polyester. The impregnated chopped glass is shot onto the mould surface in whatever thickness the design and human operator think is appropriate. This process is good for large production runs at economical cost, but produces geometric shapes with less strength than other molding processes and has poor dimensional tolerance.

3.2.7. Filament winding

Machines pull fibre bundles through a wet bath of resin and wound over a rotating steel mandrel in specific orientations Parts are cured either room temperature or elevated temperatures. Mandrel is extracted, leaving a final geometric shape but can be left in some cases.

3.2.8. Pultrusion

Fibre bundles and slit fabrics are pulled through a wet bath of resin and formed into the rough part shape. Saturated material is extruded from a heated closed die curing while being continuously pulled through die. Some of the end products of the pultrusion process are structural shapes, i.e. beam, angle, channel and flat sheet. These materials can be used to create all sorts of fibreglass structures such as ladders, platforms, handrail systems tank, pipe, and pump supports.

3.3. Resin infusion

Fabrics are placed into a mould which wet resin is then injected into. Resin is typically pressurized and forced into a cavity which is under vacuum in the RTM (Resin Transfer Molding) process. Resin is entirely pulled into cavity under vacuum in the VARTM (Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding) process. This molding process allows precise tolerances and detailed shaping but can sometimes fail to fully saturate the fabric leading to weak spots in the final shape.

3.3.1. Advantages and limitations

FRP allows the alignment of the glass fibres of thermoplastics to suit specific design programs. Specifying the orientation of reinforcing fibres can increase the strength and resistance to deformation of the polymer. Glass reinforced polymers are strongest and most resistive to deforming forces when the polymers fibres are parallel to the force being exerted, and are weakest when the fibres are perpendicular. Thus this ability is at once both an advantage and a limitation depending on the context of use. Weak spots of perpendicular fibres can be used for natural hinges and connections, but can also lead to material failure when production processes fail to properly orient the fibres parallel to expected forces. When forces are exerted perpendicular to the orientation of fibres the strength and elasticity of the polymer is less than the matrix alone. In cast resin components made of glass reinforced polymers such as UP and EP, the orientation of fibres can be oriented in two-dimensional and three-dimensional weaves. This means that when forces are possibly perpendicular to one orientation, they are parallel to another orientation; this eliminates the potential for weak spots in the polymer.

3.3.2. Failure modes

Structural failure can occur in FRP materials when:

  • Tensile forces stretch the matrix more than the fibres, causing the material to shear at the interface between matrix and fibres.

  • Tensile forces near the end of the fibres exceed the tolerances of the matrix, separating the fibres from the matrix.

  • Tensile forces can also exceed the tolerances of the fibres causing the fibres themselves to fracture leading to material failure [29].

3.3.3. Material requirements

The matrix must also meet certain requirements in order to first be suitable for the FRP process and ensure a successful reinforcement of it. The matrix must be able to properly saturate, and bond with the fibres within a suitable curing period. The matrix should preferably bond chemically with the fibre reinforcement for maximum adhesion. The matrix must also completely envelope the fibres to protect them from cuts and notches that would reduce their strength, and to transfer forces to the fibres. The fibres must also be kept separate from each other so that if failure occurs it is localized as much as possible, and if failure occurs the matrix must also debond from the fibre for similar reasons. Finally the matrix should be of a plastic that remains chemically and physically stable during and after reinforcement and molding processes. To be suitable for reinforcement material fibre additives must increase the tensile strength and modulus of elasticity of the matrix and meet the following conditions; fibres must exceed critical fibre content; the strength and rigidity of fibres itself must exceed the strength and rigidity of the matrix alone; and there must be optimum bonding between fibres and matrix.

3.4. Glass fibre material

FRPs use textile glass fibres; textile fibres are different from other forms of glass fibres used for insulating applications. Textile glass fibres begin as varying combinations of SiO2, Al2O3, B2O3, CaO, or MgO in powder form. These mixtures are then heated through a direct melt process to temperatures around 1300 degrees Celsius, after which dies are used to extrude filaments of glass fibre in diameter ranging from 9 to 17 μm. These filaments are then wound into larger threads and spun onto bobbins for transportation and further processing. Glass fibre is by far the most popular means to reinforce plastic and thus enjoys a wealth of production processes, some of which are applicable to aramid and carbon fibres as well owing to their shared fibrous qualities. Roving is a process where filaments are spun into larger diameter threads. These threads are then commonly used for woven reinforcing glass fabrics and mats, and in spray applications. Fibre fabrics are web-form fabric reinforcing material that has both warped and weft directions. Fibre mats are web-form non-woven mats of glass fibres. Mats are manufactured in cut dimensions with chopped fibres, or in continuous mats using continuous fibres. Chopped fibre glass is used in processes where lengths of glass threads are cut between 3 and 26 mm, threads are then used in plastics most commonly intended for moulding processes. Glass fibre short strands are short 0.2–0.3 mm strands of glass fibres that are used to reinforce thermoplastics most commonly for injection moulding.

3.5. Aramid fibre material process

Aramid fibres are most commonly known Kevlar, Nomex and Technora. Aramids are generally prepared by the reaction between an amine group and a carboxylic acid halide group (aramid); commonly this occurs when an aromatic polyamide is spun from a liquid concentration of sulfuric acid into a crystallized fibre. Fibres are then spun into larger threads in order to weave into large ropes or woven fabrics (Aramid) [29]. Aramid fibres are manufactured with varying grades to base on varying qualities for strength and rigidity, so that the material can be somewhat tailored to specific design needs concerns, such as cutting the tough material during manufacture.

3.6. FRP, applications

Fibre-reinforced plastics are best suited for any design program that demands weight savings, precision engineering, finite tolerances, and the simplification of parts in both production and operation. A molded polymer artifact is cheaper, faster, and easier to manufacture than cast aluminum or steel artifact, and maintains similar and sometimes better tolerances and material strengths. The Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution IV also used FRP for its spoiler material [30-32].

3.6.1. Carbon fibre reinforced polymers

Rudder of commercial airplane

  • Advantages over a traditional rudder made from sheet aluminum are:

  • 25% reduction in weight

  • 95% reduction in components by combining parts and forms into simpler molded parts.

  • Overall reduction in production and operational costs, economy of parts results in lower production costs and the weight savings create fuel savings that lower the operational costs of flying the airplane.

3.6.2. Structural applications of FRP

FRP can be applied to strengthen the beams, columns and slabs in buildings. It is possible to increase strength of these structural members even after these have been severely damaged due to loading conditions. For strengthening beams, two techniques are adopted. First one is to paste FRP plates to the bottom (generally the tension face) of a beam. This increases the strength of beam, deflection capacity of beam and stiffness (load required to make unit deflection). Alternatively, FRP strips can be pasted in 'U' shape around the sides and bottom of a beam, resulting in higher shear resistance. Columns in building can be wrapped with FRP for achieving higher strength. This is called wrapping of columns. The technique works by restraining the lateral expansion of the column. Slabs may be strengthened by pasting FRP strips at their bottom (tension face). This will result in better performance, since the tensile resistance of slabs is supplemented by the tensile strength of FRP. In the case of beams and slabs, the effectiveness of FRP strengthening depends on the performance of the resin chosen for bonding [32].

3.6.3. Glass fibre reinforced polymers

Engine intake manifolds are made from glass fibre reinforced PA 66.

  • Advantages this has over cast aluminum manifolds are:

  • Up to a 60% reduction in weight

  • Improved surface quality and aerodynamics

  • Reduction in components by combining parts and forms into simpler molded shapes. Automotive gas and clutch pedals made from glass fibre reinforced PA 66 (DWP 12-13)

  • Advantages over stamped aluminum are:

  • Pedals can be molded as single units combining both pedals and mechanical linkages simplifying the production and operation of the design.

  • Fibres can be oriented to reinforce against specific stresses, increasing the durability and safety.

3.6.4. Design considerations

FRP is used in designs that require a measure of strength or modulus of elasticity those non-reinforced plastics and other material choices are either ill suited for mechanically or economically. This means that the primary design consideration for using FRP is to ensure that the material is used economically and in a manner that takes advantage of its structural enhancements specifically. This is however not always the case, the orientation of fibres also creates a material weakness perpendicular to the fibres. Thus the use of fibre reinforcement and their orientation affects the strength, rigidity, and elasticity of a final form and hence the operation of the final product itself. Orienting the direction of fibres either, unidirectional, 2-dimensionally, or 3-dimensionally during production affects the degree of strength, flexibility, and elasticity of the final product. Fibres oriented in the direction of forces display greater resistance to distortion from these forces and vice versa, thus areas of a product that must withstand forces will be reinforced with fibres in the same direction, and areas that require flexibility, such as natural hinges, will use fibres in a perpendicular direction to forces. Using more dimensions avoids this either or scenario and creates objects that seek to avoid any specific weak points due to the unidirectional orientation of fibres. The properties of strength, flexibility and elasticity can also be magnified or diminished through the geometric shape and design of the final product. These include such design consideration such as ensuring proper wall thickness and creating multifunctional geometric shapes that can be molding as single pieces, creating shapes that have more material and structural integrity by reducing joints, connections, and hardware [30].

3.6.5. Disposal and recycling concerns

As a subset of plastic FR plastics are liable to a number of the issues and concerns in plastic waste disposal and recycling. Plastics pose a particular challenge in recycling processes because they are derived from polymers and monomers that often cannot be separated and returned to their virgin states, for this reason not all plastics can be recycled for re-use, in fact some estimates claim only 20% to 30% of plastics can be material recycled at all. Fibre reinforced plastics and their matrices share these disposal and environmental concerns. In addition to these concerns, the fact that the fibres themselves are difficult to remove from the matrix and preserve for re-use means FRP amplify these challenges. FRP are inherently difficult to separate into base a material that is into fibre and matrix, and the Fibre-reinforced plastic matrix into separate usable plastic, polymers, and monomers. These are all concerns for environmentally informed design today, but plastics often offer savings in energy and economic savings in comparison to other materials, also with the advent of new more environmentally friendly matrices such as bioplastics and UV-degradable plastics, FRP will similarly gain environmental sensitivity [29].

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4. Mechanical properties measurements

4.1. Strength

Strength is a mechanical property that you should be able to relate to, but you might not know exactly what we mean by the word "strong" when are talking about polymers. First, there is more than one kind of strength. There is tensile strength. A polymer has tensile strength if it is strong when one pulls on it. Tensile strength is important for a material that is going to be stretched or under tension. Fibers need good tensile strength.

Then there is compressional strength. A polymer sample has compressional strength if it is strong when one tries to compress it. Concrete is an example of a material with good compressional strength. Anything that has to support weight from underneath has to have good compressional strength [32]. There is also flexural strength. A polymer sample has flexural strength if it is strong when one tries to bend it.

There are other kinds of strength we could talk about. A sample torsional strength if it is strong when one tries to twist it. Then there is impact strength. A sample has impact strength if it is strong when one hits it sharply and suddenly, as with a hammer.

To measure the tensile strength of a polymer sample, we take the sample and we try to stretch. We usually stretch it with a machine for these studies. This machine simply has clamps on each end of the sample, then, when you turn it on it stretches the sample. While it is stretching the sample, it measures the amount of force (F) that it is exerting. When we know the force being exerted on the sample, we then divide that number by the cross-sectional area (A) of our sample. The answer is the stress that our sample is experiencing. Then, using our machine, we continue to increase the amount of force, and stress naturally, on the sample until it breaks. The stress needed to break the sample is the tensile strength of the material. Likewise, one can imagine similar tests for compressional or flexural strength. In all cases, the strength is the stress needed to break the sample. Since tensile stress is the force placed on the sample divided by the cross-sectional area of the sample, tensile stress, and tensile strength as well, are both measured in units of force divided by units of area, usually N/cm2. Stress and strength can also be measured in megapascals (MPa) or gigapascals (GPa). It is easy to convert between the different units, because 1 MPa = 100 N/cm2, 1 GPa = 100,000 N/cm2, and of course 1 GPa = 1,000 MPa. Other times, stress and strength are measured in the old English units of pounds per square inch, or psi. If you ever have to convert psi to N/cm2, the conversion factor is 1 N/cm2 = 1.45 psi.

4.2. Elongation

But there is more to understanding a polymer's mechanical properties than merely knowing how strong it is. All strength tells us is how much stress is needed to break something. It doesn't tell us anything about what happens to our sample while we're trying to break it. That's where it pays to study the elongation behavior of a polymer sample. Elongation is a type of deformation. Deformation is simply a change in shape that anything undergoes under stress. When we're talking about tensile stress, the sample deforms by stretching, becoming longer. We call this elongation, of course. Usually we talk about percent elongation, which is just the length the polymer sample is after it is stretched (L), divided by the original length of the sample (L0), and then multiplied by 100.

There are a number of things we measure related to elongation. Which is most important depends on the type of material one is studying. Two important things we measure are ultimate elongation and elastic elongation. Ultimate elongation is important for any kind of material. It is nothing more than the amount you can stretch the sample before it breaks. Elastic elongation is the percent elongation you can reach without permanently deforming your sample. That is, how much can you stretch it, and still have the sample snap back to its original length once you release the stress on it. This is important if your material is an elastomer. Elastomers have to be able to stretch a long distance and still bounce back. Most of them can stretch from 500 to 1000 % elongation and return to their original lengths without any trouble [32].

4.3. Modulus

In the elastomers are need show the high elastic elongation. But for some other types of materials, like plastics, it usually they not stretch or deform so easily. If we want to know how well a material resists deformation, we measure something called modulus. To measure tensile modulus, we do the same thing as we did to measure strength and ultimate elongation. This time we measure the stress we're exerting on the material, just like we did when we were measuring tensile strength. First, is slowly increasing the amount of stress, and then we measure the elongation the sample undergoes at each stress level. We keep doing this until the sample breaks. This plot is called a stress-strain curve. (Strain is any kind of deformation, including elongation. Elongation is the word we use if we're talking specifically about tensile strain.) The height of the curve when the sample breaks is the tensile strength, of course, and the tensile modulus is the slope of this plot. If the slope is steep, the sample has a high tensile modulus, which means it resists deformation. If the slope is gentle, then the sample has a low tensile modulus, which means it is easily deformed. There are times when the stress-strain curve is not nice and straight, like we saw above. The slope isn't constant as stress increases. The slope, that is the modulus, is changing with stress. In a case like this we usually, the initial slope change as the modulus change [32].

In general, fibers have the highest tensile moduli, and elastomers have the lowest, and plastics have tensile moduli somewhere in between fibers and elastomers.

Modulus is measured by calculating stress and dividing by elongation, and would be measured in units of stress divided by units of elongation. But since elongation is dimensionless, it has no units by which we can divide. So modulus is expressed in the same units as strength, such as N/cm2.

Intrinsic deformation is defined as the materials’ true stress-strain response during homogeneous deformation. Since generally strain localization phenomena occur (like necking, shear banding, crazing and cracking), the measurement of the intrinsic materials’ response requires a special experimental set-up, such as a video-controlled tensile or a uniaxial compression test. Although details of the intrinsic response differ per material, a general representation of the intrinsic deformation of polymers can be recognized [33], see Figure 1.

4.4. Toughness

That plot of stress versus strain can give us another very valuable piece of information. If one measures the area underneath the stress-strain curve (figure 2), colored red in the graph below, the number you get is something we call toughness.

Toughness is really a measure of the energy a sample can absorb before it breaks. Think about it, if the height of the triangle in the plot is strength, and the base of the triangle is strain, then the area is proportional to strength strain. Since strength is proportional to the force needed to break the sample, and strain is measured in units of distance (the distance the sample is stretched), then strength strain is proportional is force times distance, and as we remember from physics, force times distance is energy.

From a physics point of view the strength, is that strength tells how much force is needed to break a sample, and toughness tells how much energy is needed to break a sample. But that does not really tell you what the practical differences are. What is important knows that just because a material is strong, it isn't necessarily going to be tough as well [34-35].

The gray plot is the stress-strain curve for a sample that is strong, but not tough (figure 3). As you can see, it takes a lot of force to break this sample. Likewise, this sample ca not stretch very much before it breaks. A material like this which is strong, but can not deform very much before it breaks is called brittle [36].

The gray plot is a stress-strain curve for a sample that is both strong and tough. This material is not as strong as the sample in the gray plot, but the area underneath its curve is a lot larger than the area under the gray sample's curve. So it can absorb a lot more energy than the gray-black sample plot.

The gray-black sample elongates a lot more before breaking than the gray sample does. You see, deformation allows a sample to dissipate energy. If a sample can't deform, the energy won't be dissipated, and will cause the sample to break [37].

In real life, we usually want materials to be tough and strong. Ideally, it would be nice to have a material that would not bend or break, but this is the real world. The gray-black sample has a much higher modulus than the red sample. While it is good for materials in a lot of applications to have high moduli and resist deformation, in the real world it is a lot better for a material to bend than to break, and if bending, stretching or deforming in some other way prevents the material from breaking, all the better. So when we design new polymers, or new composites, we often sacrifice a little bit of strength in order to make the material tougher.

4.5. Mechanical properties of real polymers

The rigid plastics such as polystyrene, poly(methyl methacrylate or polycarbonate can withstand a good deal of stress, but they won't withstand much elongation before breaking. There is not much area under the stress-strain curve at all. So we say that materials like this are strong, but not very tough. Also, the slope of the plot is very steep, which means that it takes a lot of force to deform a rigid plastic. So it is easy to see that rigid plastics have high moduli. In short, rigid plastics tend to be strong, at resist deformation, but they tend not to be very tough, that is, they are brittle.

Flexible plastics like polyethylene and polypropylene are different from rigid plastics in that they don not resist deformation as well, but they tend not to break. The ability to deform is what keeps them from breaking. Initial modulus is high, that is it will resist deformation for awhile, but if enough stress is put on a flexible plastic, it will eventually deform. If you try to stretch it a plastic bag, it will be very hard at first, but once you have stretched it far enough it will give way and stretch easily. The bottom line is that flexible plastics may not be as strong as rigid ones, but they are a lot tougher.

It is possible to alter the stress-strain behavior of a plastic with additives called plasticizers. A plasticizer is a small molecule that makes plastics more flexible. For example, without plasticizers, poly(vinyl chloride), or PVC for short, is a rigid plastic. Rigid unplasticized PVC is used for water pipes. But with plasticizers, PVC can be made flexible enough to use to make things like hoses.

Fibers like KevlarTM, carbon fiber and nylon tend to have stress-strain curves like the aqua-colored plot in the graph above. Like the rigid plastics, they are more strong than tough, and do not deform very much under tensile stress. But when strength is what you need, fibers have plenty of it. They are much stronger than plastics, even the rigid ones, and some polymeric fibers, like KevlarTM, carbon fiber and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene have better tensile strength than steel.

Elastomers like polyisoprene, polybutadiene and polyisobutylene have completely different mechanical behavior from the other types of materials. Take a look at the pink plot in the graph above. Elastomers have very low moduli. You can see this from the very gentle slope of the pink plot, but you probably knew this already. You already knew that it is easy to stretch or bend a piece of rubber [34]. If elastomers did not have low moduli, they would not be very good elastomers.

But it takes more than just low modulus to make a polymer an elastomer. Being easily stretched is not much use unless the material can bounce back to its original size and shape once the stress is released. Rubber bands would be useless if they just stretched and did not bounce back. Of course, elastomers do bounce back, and that is what makes them so amazing. They have not just high elongation, but high reversible elongation.

4.6. Tensile properties

The discussion of which types of polymers have which mechanical properties has focused mostly on tensile properties. When we look at other properties, like compressional properties or flexural properties things can be completely different. For example, fibers have very high tensile strength and good flexural strength as well, but they usually have terrible compressional strength. They also only have good tensile strength in the direction of the fibers.

Some polymers are tough, while others are strong, and how one often has to make trade-offs when designing new materials; the design may have to sacrifice strength for toughness, but sometimes we can combine two polymers with different properties to get a new material with some of the properties of both. There are three main ways of doing this, and they are copolymerization, blending, and making composite materials.

The copolymer that combines the properties of two materials is spandex. It is a copolymer containing blocks of elastomeric polyoxyethylene and blocks of a rigid fiber-forming polyurethane. The result is a fiber that stretches. Spandex is used to make stretchy clothing like bicycle pants.

High-impact polystyrene, or HIPS for short, is an immiscible blend that combines the properties of two polymers, styrene and polybutadiene. Polystyrene is a rigid plastic. When mixed with polybutadiene, an elastomer, it forms a phase-separated mixture which has the strength of polystyrene along with toughness supplied by the polybutadiene. For this reason, HIPS is far less brittle than regular polystyrene [38].

In the case of a composite material, we are usually using a fiber to reinforce a thermoset. Thermosets are crosslinked materials whose stress-strain behavior is often similar to plastics. The fiber increases the tensile strength of the composite, while the thermoset gives it compressional strength and toughness.

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5. Conclusions

This brief review of FRP has summarized the very broad range of unusual functionalities that these products bring (Polymers, Aramids, Composites, Carbon FRP, and Glass-FRP). While the chemistry plays an important role in defining the scope of applications for which these materials are suited, it is equally important that the final parts are designed to maximize the value of the inherent properties of these materials. Clearly exemplify the constant trade-off between functionality and processability that is an ongoing challenge with these advanced materials. The functionality that allows these materials to perform under extreme conditions has to be balanced against processability that allows them to be economically shaped into useful forms. The ability of a polymer material to deform is determined by the mobility of its molecules, characterized by specific molecular motions and relaxation mechanisms, which are accelerated by temperature and stress. Since these relaxation mechanisms are material specific and depend on the molecular structure, they are used here to establish the desired link with the intrinsic deformation behavior.

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Acknowledgement

The author would like to offer a special thanks to Universidad Nacional de San Luis, to Instituto de Física Aplicada, and to Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas for being generously support used in this research works.

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Martin Alberto Masuelli (January 23rd 2013). Introduction of Fibre-Reinforced Polymers − Polymers and Composites: Concepts, Properties and Processes, Fiber Reinforced Polymers - The Technology Applied for Concrete Repair, Martin Alberto Masuelli, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/54629. Available from:

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App Builder Crack is a new and innovative way to develop mobile applications using HTML5. There are many sponsors of vision and non-vision on this computer, which you can add to the computer environment. These subscribers include clients, HTTP clients, access points, pushbuttons, and many other mobile application development owners. App Builder License Key is a great thing because you do not have to be a JavaScript master developing the project using HTML5. Computer software is useful, but it’s a user-friendly platform to help people create their HTML5 projects, even if they don’t know the field, because they don’t need to write a line. Code, if you didn’t want it.

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  • Download It From the given button below.
  • After download extracts, App Builder Crack the Zip file using WinRAR and WinZIP.
  • Then install the program as usual.
  • After install, don’t run the software.
  • Always read the readme file.
  • Now, copy and paste crack files in the c-program files.
  • After installation, run the software.
  • Finally, Done.

Author Review:

App Builder Crack is the first and only visual development environment that lets you build, with or without programming skills, HTML5 apps, WebApps, Progressive WebApps, WebExtensions, and hybrid apps for mobile and desktop devices. App Builder is a complete development environment. You can create HTML5 apps, WebApps, Progressive WebApps, and WebExtensions apps ready to run on desktop and mobile browsers. With Apache Cordova ™, we can also create applications for platforms such as Android.

Related

Summary

Reviewer

Ahmed

Review Date

Reviewed Item

App Builder Crack

Author Rating

Software Name

App Builder Crack

Software Name

Windows/Mac

Software Category

Developer Tool

Источник: https://crackphilia.com/app-builder-crack-download/

Introducing the MobileCaddy App Extensions

Written by Todd Halfpenny

Every project has time constraints, which sometimes means that nice features have to be dropped. This is why we’ve decided to make public our first set of App Extensions. These packages can be included in projects with a single command, freeing up your development time and enhancing your apps without limiting scope.

During our last couple of product updates I (excitedly) rabbited on about the development and GA release of our first three MobileCaddy App Extensions. The thinking behind releasing a suite of growing extension packages for our partners stemmed from some internal work that Diana, our latest developer intern, had undertaken.

Diana – a recent MSc graduate from the University of Kent – was tasked with updating one of our internal Salesforce mobile apps. During the scoping phase, we realised a lot of the new features would have also been an amazing fit in many of the apps our partners have built for their customers. Thus, the MobileCaddy App Extensions were born!

The first three extensions to go GA are:

McRest

An Angular service that acts as a wrapper to standard and custom Salesforce REST endpoints. The extension takes care of the authentication to Salesforce and includes calls for basic queries, SOQL calls, and file functionality.

Here’s an example to access a Salesforce Chatter feed:

 

varobj={

  method:'GET',

  contentType:'application/json',

  path:'/services/data/v36.0/chatter/feeds/news/me/feed-elements'

  };

McRestService.request(obj).then(function(result){

  ...

  ...

}

 

Global Search

This package contains an Angular service and controller, and an Ionic template that can be used to add a global search function to your app. It can be configured to handle queries across multiple mobilised tables and defined fields, and supports fuzzy search.

The extension also supports maintaining a configurable number of recent search items that were viewed.

global-search

Recent Items

An Angular service giving a lightweight implementation of calls to add, remove, and retrieve Salesforce objects from a local recent items listing.

Recent items are can be retrieved for a particular object, or for all entries.

 

// Get recent ‘Account’ object records.

let recentAccounts=RecentItemsService.getRecentItems('Account');

 

Tell me More

Our App Extensions are served as stand-alone packages and can be installed directly through npm. Each App Extension contains its own unit tests and is hooked up to TravisCI. When installed, they’ll copy their relevant code, and tests, into your project structure and will be included in your git repo by default. Being npm packages, they too can be easily upgraded when updates are made available.

Our library of extensions will expand as we identify more common feature sets, and we’ll be sure to open source them all. With that in mind, please feel free to raise PRs or issue tickets against them. And please let us know us on Twitter, or your private partner Slack channel (available to all our partners), if you have an idea for a new extension.

The aim of our extensions is a pure continuation of our belief that developers shouldn’t be re-inventing the wheel and having to re-write code that’s already proven. They’re also there to make sure rich features can be added to applications in scenarios where they’d normally be descoped due to project constraints.

The MobileCaddy App Extensions enable you to pull in common application functions and features with a single command. And with MobileCaddy actively maintaining the extensions, and the single-command update process, your apps stay up-to-date with limited effort. Check out our currently released Extensions at the links below, and start enriching your apps today.

Further Reading

Tags: Codeflow, Extension, javascript, Salesforce


London’s Calling 2017 Preview: Using browser tools for Salesforce app development

Written by Robbie Westacott

Europe’s largest community-led event for Salesforce professionals has come around once again, with London’s Calling 2017 taking place Friday, 10 February in… you guessed it, London.

rsz_lc2017-todd-halfeny-title-slide

With yet another fantastic panel of speakers, experts, and MVPs presenting at the event as always, recognised Salesforce consultant Phil Walton has released his 2017 list of 25 people to meet at London’s Calling. This year, MobileCaddy’s own Senior Mobile Technical Architect Todd Halfpenny has been named on that list, as he’s set to give a presentation which will provide the audience with tips and tricks for making the most of a browser’s developer tools. Continue reading…

Tags: App Development, Enterprise Applications, Enterprise Mobility, London's Calling 2017, Mobile App Development, Mobile Applications, Mobile Technology, MobileCaddy, Salesforce, Salesforce Mobile


Salesforce Mobile SDK 5 Opens New Doors for Developers

Written by Francis Hart

Coming back to work after the Christmas break is rarely easy, but thanks to a late December announcement from the Salesforce Mobile SDK team, there’s already been cause for excitement as we look ahead to the rest of 2017! That’s right, the Salesforce Mobile SDK 5 has now been released for iOS, Android, and Cordova.

Salesforce Mobile SDK 5 Icon

The Salesforce Mobile SDK allows developers to create both native and hybrid apps, for iOS and Android, to mobilise their Salesforce organisation. At MobileCaddy, we enhance and leverage the Salesforce Mobile SDK to help you rapidly build business critical mobile applications, and also provide you with an environment to support and manage your apps and users with ease. For more insight into how this works, read our case study on how we helped Diesel achieve mobile app success.

What are the Major Changes? 

  • iOS 10 and Xcode 8 support – Released back in September 2016, iOS 10 is Apple’s latest iOS version. With a reported adoption rate of 64% in November, keeping up with support of the latest OS version is very important
  • Android Nougat support – Android N (API level 25), was released back in August 2016 and is the latest version of the Android OS, bringing improved security and features
  • WKWebView replaces UIWebView –WKWebView was released in iOS 8 as a replacement for UIWebView, and brings with it more capable memory handling, reduced CPU load, and a whole lot more, all of which should add up to an improved user experience when using hybrid apps
  • New APIs that allow hybrid developers to create their own named databases
  • Cordova 4.3.0 and 6.1.0 support
  • Full App Transport Support (ATS) server compatibility – Apple requires that all network calls happen over HTTPS, a welcome boost to communication security
  • Dropped support for iOS 8 – As with many upgrades come dropped support for older versions. SDK 5 now supports iOS 9 at a minimum.

Along with various bug fixes and improvements, these changes to the Mobile SDK promise to help bring richer and better user experiences with Salesforce on mobile devices.

For the full set of release notes, and to download the Mobile SDK, take a look at the Salesforce Mobile SDK repo on Github for iOS, Android, or Cordova.

What do MobileCaddy Customers Need to Know?

Current MobileCaddy customers and users don’t need to do anything for the time being, your apps will still continue to work and function as you expect. But it’s a good idea if you’re a Salesforce mobile developer who utilises the Mobile SDK to check for any issues or broken functionality, by replacing your current SDK version with the new SDK 5, and also look at how you can leverage the new features and improvements that SDK 5 brings.

Remember to report any bugs or issues you find to the respective Salesforce Mobile SDK repo, or ask questions on the Google Plus page for the Salesforce Mobile SDK. You can also visit the Salesforce Mobile Technical Library for documentation, examples, and links to Trailhead modules.

Keep an eye out on our main MobileCaddy Blog for our next post on the new Mobile SDK 5, or visit our developer documentation to get started with the MobileCaddy platform to build smarter and better Salesforce mobile applications.

Tags: android, Cloud Technology, cordova, Custom App Development, Custom Mobile Apps, Enterprise Applications, Enterprise Mobile Apps, Enterprise Mobility, iOS, Mobile Applications, Mobile Strategy, Mobile Technology, MobileCaddy, Salesforce, Salesforce Mobile Apps, Salesforce Mobile SDK, Salesforce Platform


Desktop Hybrid Apps, Plugins, and IonicNative

Written by Todd Halfpenny

This is the first in a series of posts on just one tranche of the future for hybrid apps; the one that sees them continue to expand their reach on to PCs and Macs as ‘Desktop Hybrid’ apps.

Desktop Hybrid Apps

And since this is ‘post number one’ in the series, let us start with an introduction to desktop hybrid apps. As with mobile hybrid apps, those for the desktop can be initially understood as applications that are written with web technologies – HTML, CSS, and JavaScript – but they reside within a native container that exposes functionality and features of the host’s OS and hardware. This exposed layer includes support for aspects such as the following;

  • Installability – As with mobile hybrid, apps can be installed on to the host OS, just like any other app
  • OS UI Integration – Desktop app icons, tray icons, native menus, etc.
  • Hardware APIs – Filesystem access, Bluetooth, cameras, etc.

On mobile devices, this container layer is supplied through technologies such as Adobe Phonegap. With the ever-increasing oomph of mobile hardware, and the rise in adoption of frameworks like Ionic, mobile hybrid apps are no longer seen as the poor cousins of native apps – with many having millions of users¹, and winning both consumer² and enterprise³ awards, including Most Innovative Mobile Solution, Salesforce Partner Awards 2016, won by the TOPS app built using MobileCaddy.

Screenshots of Apps on mobile devices

As on mobile, desktop now has its own enablers for hybrid apps. These have their containers provided by projects including Electron and nw.js. These offerings utilise Node.js to build the bridge between the JavaScript world, and that of processes which have access to standard OS features, such as the file system. The hybrid apps can also be crunched up into natively installable (and upgradeable) forms, such as MSI for Windows and dmg for Mac OS.

atom

Despite its young age, there are already many popular apps written using Electron. Companies using Electron include Microsoft, GitHub (who developed Electron), Slack, and Automattic (WordPress.com).

Our own MobileCaddy desktop offering, for full offline-enabled, custom desktop apps for Salesforce, is currently in beta and is looking amazing. It appears the appetite for installable, offline-enabled desktop clients for Salesforce is strong; if you want to find out more, request an activation code using the form below.

Hybrid vs PWAs

Before sitting down to write this article, I was already debating with myself when one should choose to build a hybrid app, rather than build a Progressive Web App (PWA). As with the overall hybrid architecture, the similarities between mobile and desktop again come into play, but this time in reference to the pros and cons that arise when questioning which route to take.

With mobile, hybrid apps have access to a whole raft of native features through Cordova plugins, whereas PWAs are limited to those provided by WEB APIs. The functionality and features you get with PWAs are increasing though – you can have “add to home screen” support, push notifications, and plenty else aside.

The situation on the desktop is very similar. PWAs have the same kind of access, but hybrid apps still (for the time being at least) have greater reach into the native layer, and are treated more like first class citizens. Hybrid apps are able to, for example, make use of native menus, tray icons, and store data outside of web storage.

I’m positive, and excited, to believe that the list of restrictions upon Web Apps will only continue to shrink, but in the meantime, let’s crack on.

One Codebase to Rule Them All

It is now only right to start thinking that, as app developers, it should be possible to have more or less a single codebase that supplies hybrid apps across the mobile and desktop landscape. This is something that the folks at Ionic have written about before, along with their intent to embrace PWAs.

In actual fact, we’re very close indeed to having a single codebase. It’s possible to write a JavaScript application that can be served as a PWA, enclosed in a Phonegap wrapper, or included in an Electron project. This means we can cover this vast landscape without the need to change barely any of the code that makes up the business logic or styling of your app. The vast majority of differences are more aligned to build tasks rather than application code.

So we’re there right? Well nearly, but not quite. Let’s say that you’re writing an app using Ionic – and so it’s an Angular SPA – and the app wants to create and access a private, persistent SQLite database… well you can do this on mobile using plugins such as Cordova SQLite Storage, and on desktop using the Node SQLite3 node package. To achieve the same functionality on mobile and desktop, we’ll be installing multiple plugins (though both eventually installed through npm, under the covers), and we’ll need to inject/reference them differently; we’re now left having to split our project into two.

For mobile we could use the IonicNative project (and let’s say our chosen plugin is supported by it), which means we’ll inject that single dependency, and use IonicNative to access the plugin, which in-turn bridges the JavaScript-to-Native divide and allows us to create and use our SQLite database. For desktop, it’s a little different. For our app to access the node package we could use Electron’s IPC to make a call from our renderer process (where our SPA is running) to the main process.

It can be seen that this difference in inclusion and access means that our codebase can’t be the same, or can it?

IonicNative to the Rescue

Here is where you’ll need to indulge me… what if IonicNative rocked up and said, “Hey, yeah we already love making life easier for devs, so ima gonna step up to the plate”. This is what I’m thinking;

Not only does IonicNative provide a wrapper to Cordova plugins for mobile, but it also has an awareness of the device it’s running on. And if it knows that it’s running inside an Electron environment, it makes an Electron IPC call instead of calling through to the Cordova plugin. And what if the Cordova plugin developers, as well as having branches of code for Android and iOS, also had a branch for Electron? This branch could support the IPC messages and interface to the native layer to fulfill the request from IonicNative.

Architecture diagram

With this architecture in place – or something similar – the application developer wouldn’t need to concern themselves with platform nuances, or managing multiple codebases. Their process could be something like;

 

ionic create MyIonicCode

ionic install ionic-native&&mySQLitePlugin

Write some code

ionic build--all-the-platforms

Feel smug

ionic deploy

Bask inthe glory…anddothisalot asyou’ve loads of spare time.

 

I recently managed to kidnap Alex Muramoto – Dev Advocate for Ionic – and chatted with him through some of the above in relation to bringing MobileCaddy apps to the desktop. I’m hugely grateful for the time he spared me (he was busy writing slides for the Ionic UK Meetup) and our conversation definitely helped me to flush through some of my thoughts.

I’d love to find some spare time to put together a proof-of-concept of this, perhaps using the SQLite example above. Perhaps I’d initially start with just implementing intelligence into IonicNative to make the Electron IPC if needed, and have my project package explicitly pull in either the Cordova plugin or Node package, depending on the build target.

Summary

I hope this post triggers some thoughts and discussion and perhaps leads to a more unified future for hybrid app, right across the device landscape.

For our part, at MobileCaddy, we know that the demand is there for driving towards a single codebase for Salesforce clients on both mobile and desktop, and we know that hybrid is the answer. As part of this we’ll be keen to share our ideas, and contribute to the great projects that help enable this.

Future posts in this ‘Desktop Hybrid’ series shall look further into the topics of Salesforce, Ionic, and further analysis into the differences between hybrid and PWAs.

Footnotes and Links

  1. Sworkit – Personalised Video Workouts
  2. Untappd – Time Magazine – 50 Best Apps of 2016
  3. TOPSs – Most Innovative Mobile Solution, Salesforce Partner Awards 2016

Tags: cordova, desktop, Electron, hybrid, Ionic, IonicNative, Salesforce


New Trailhead Badge – Trailhead Builder for ISVs?

Written by Todd Halfpenny

I’m pretty sure I’m not going to lose any friends, or make any waves, if I come out and say Trailhead is awesome… so…

TRAILHEAD IS AWESOME!
– Todd Halfpenny, Mobile Technical Architect, 2016

And as a dev – and all round tech lover – interested in Salesforce, I absolutely love the accessibility to information and training. And that’s not to mention the the broadness of topics it covers, from Apex development, to generating reports, to promoting diversity within your organisation.

And with my ISV Hat on?

Of course, it’s good for us, in terms of upskilling our employees and in general giving access to superb resources for all future staff. But, and I’m just going to come out and say it, I want more.

Imagine this, a Trailhead Builder for ISVs (in fact wouldn’t it be great to earn your Trailhead Builder for ISVs Trailhead badge).

Trailhead Builder for ISVs badge

That’s right, wouldn’t it be great if you were, say, employed at Ebsta and you had a tool to create a Getting Started with Ebsta trail and have trails such as Creating Your First Templates. How fantastic would it be if you could submit a config file that described a set of objects and properties to be evaluated, which could be used to do the brilliant automated marking that Trailhead does when it connects to your dev org?

I know for sure that our customers would appreciate some MobileCaddy badges, either for admins or devs. I can really see how valuable a badge for Defining Your First Fully Offline Mobile Table could be to our clients, be they part of an end user org or a MobileCaddy Partner. It’s all well and good having our own training resources, but if we could offer an interactive, online pool of information and tests, that aligned to those they are likely to be familiar with, then it can only be positive.

Such trails become even more important, I believe, when ISVs are faced with not just upgrading their apps to be Lightning-compliant, but also having to update their training materials, courses and documentation, too.

I can only imagine that such tools or processes exist internally, and hope that this post my tweak some interest and ignite some excitement over such feature set being available for ISVs.

Tags: ISV, Salesforce, Trailhead


London Salesforce Developer Meetup – July Review

Written by Todd Halfpenny

Last month’s London Salesforce DUG meetup was an odd one. It was a viewing party for the keynote(s) of the TrailheaDX – the annual Salesforce Developer conference. As interesting, and enjoyable, as it was, I was pleased this month’s agenda was back to the “couple of talks and then chat”.

But before all that, Keir Bowden kicked off with a short community message… “we want more speakers”. So if you have a passion for something that you think the Salesforce Developer community might like, or a demo of something cool, then please, please get in touch with the group.

“We want more speakers, get in touch”
– London Salesforce DUG Organisers

The Welkin Suite IDE – Rustam Nurgudin

Starting off the talks was Rustam, CEO of The Welkin Suite, the company behind the IDE that is really impressing Salesforce devs. He told us how their IDE was born of frustration with the existing tools that were available. As with other great products, they saw a problem and – in my eyes at least – have made some incredible dents in it.

The Welkin Suite logo

The amount of features and tools in the suite just seems boggling. The core editor has everything and more that you’d expect in an editor… and then some;

  • Code completion
  • Syntax highlighting (apex and Lightning, I believe)
  • Mini-map (with magnified preview and error highlighting)
  • Snippets
  • Unit test statuses and actions available in the margin
  • And probably others – Rustam was demoing faster than I can take notes!

Other parts of the IDE included Unit Test (code coverage, jump from logs to source, retrospective debugs and more), a Profiler, class libraries and project inspector. The latter includes the neat support of specifying your own folder hierarchy that can be shared with other members of your team. Oh, and I almost forgot their WAVE PREVIEW FEATURE!

For the time being it’s free and is available on Windows, with a Mac version coming soon. Rustam believes that in future there’ll be a monthly subscription for use… but to be honest talking to the other devs who were at the meet it seems the features of the IDE are well worth a small recurring fee.

I chatted to Rustam following the meet and he’s very keen to get developers outside of their business using it, and is openly requesting feedback… so what are you waiting for, download The Welkin Suite now and let him know what you think!

Road to Becoming a CTA – Sunny Matharu

Up next was Sunny Matharu, of Deloitte. He told us how they’ve recently been discussing the updates to the types of architects that will (or do, now) exist in the Salesforce ecosystem. The talk title seemed to be a bit link-bate-esq, but I’ll forgive him, as it was a really good open talk and discussion on the new state of certifications relating to Salesforce architects.

What we actually covered was the new certifications that are ( and will be, maybe) available, and how they all fit together and what they will (probably) mean for the dreaded final CTA review board exam.

“Sometimes I wonder if Salesforce make more money from licenses or certifications”
– Anonymous

So this is all a little confusing and still new – and/or not yet out finalised- so please take what follows with a pinch of Safe-Harbour-salt. Salesforce have introduced 3 new Domain Specialist certifications and are going to introduce 2 new Domain Architect certifications.

Salesforce Architect Certifications Hireachy

The Domain Specialist certs are made up of;

Looking into the study guide of the Mobile Solutions Architecture Designer certificate it seems to cover a lot of what we undertake every day at MobileCaddy. Be it designing solutions to support secure mobile Salesforce applications across multiple devices on multiple OSs. Or understanding and explaining the suitability, strengths and limitations of the different options an organisation might face when undertaking a mobile transformation project. The materials already available to support those wanting to gain this accreditation appears to be pretty thorough… I just hope that a mention of MobileCaddy in an exam would get the participant extra credit :)

As for the two Domain Architects certs it’s believed that they will be as below… but at time of writing the closest I could find online was a note on the Architect Academy to say they’re “Coming Soon”.

  • Application Architect
  • System Architect

Sunny went on to say that the idea behind these extra certifications was that it would hopefully reduce the failure rate of the CTA final review board, by breaking down areas of expertise into individual chunks and exams. I wanted to find out more about how he’d got all this info, but I missed him after the talks, but from what I gathered he, through Deloitte, had been chatting to EMEA CTA expert at Salesforce.

“The number of Salesforce certs on a project team can affect how they are won”
– Sunny Matharu

I really enjoyed the open discussion of this session, and Sunny came across as a very knowledgable and personable chap, and one I hope we hear more from at the DUG.

Wrap Up

As I mentioned earlier, I really enjoyed the make-up of this month’s DUG; both talks were full of knowledge and passion and I think everyone in the audience took at least a few items of interest from them.

As usual, the chats following the meet were entertaining and thought provoking, and definitely worth sticking around for. It’s was good catching up with folks I’d met before as well as new faces… including one chap I’d spoken to many times on conference calls but not actually met before.

Of course no write-up would be complete with a nod to all the sponsors (CapGemini, MobileCaddy) and organisers.

Recordings of the talks should be available on the London Salesforce DUG YouTube channel in the near future, make sure you follow MobileCaddy Devs on twitter to get notified once they’re up.

Tags: certification, IDE, meetup, Salesforce


How Salesforce can lead Gartner’s Mobile App Magic Quadrant

Written by Todd Halfpenny

In June 2016, Gartner released their Magic Quadrant for Mobile App Development Platforms report. It looked at the major vendors within the MADP (Mobile Application Development Platform) space and evaluated them against multiple factors, including customer experience, pricing, marketing understanding, and innovation.

Gartner Magic Quadrant 20a16
Image: Gartner

Within the report, Salesforce is favourably judged and comes a clear third, both in terms of Completeness of Vision, and also for the Ability to Execute. First and second place are closely contested between IBM and Kony.

Whilst third isn’t a bad position, with the addition of MobileCaddy to your tool-belt, it’s clear that it becomes a real contender to take the lead spot.

Mobile App Testing

In the report Gartner notes “In the Salesforce App Cloud platform, mobile app testing support and its integration with third-party testing services are not such a focus area as in other MADP offerings.” Whilst this is true for apps written to be consumed within the Salesforce1 container, it certainly isn’t for custom applications built upon the Salesforce Mobile SDK.

MobileCaddy applications have their client part written in JavaScript, and as such are well supported by existing testing frameworks, services, and continuous integration setups. As well as having the client code being pushed through CI processes – for example Travis CI, Jenkins or Pipelines – we’re also able to push automated testing through real devices using open tools such as appium, as well as third-party services.

MobileCaddy Apps can be tested through 3rd part CI tools

Image: Atlassian

At our very core is the belief that app performance is paramount, and as developers, designers, and architects, we need not just our applications to be paranoid, but also our development and deployment workflows too.

Custom UI and UX

The report writes, “Customers must temper their expectations on RMAD (Rapid Mobile App Development) capabilities, because the Salesforce1 container approach to deploying apps created with App Builder poses UX limitations.” As accurate as this is for those applications that are built with and for Salesforce1, it’s certainly not the case that Salesforce customers are limited to this when it comes to application UI and UX.

With MobileCaddy you can have a fully custom UI and UX in your application, whilst retaining the incredible flexibility, scalability, and security of the Salesforce platform.

Salesforce Mobile App with Custom UI/UX through MobileCaddy

Image: MobileCaddy

At MobileCaddy we openly support and promote the use of the highly-rated Ionic Framework in providing the UI layer for Salesforce mobile apps. With the power of Ionic – it’s components, platform continuity, and performance focus – we’ve been able to deliver beautiful apps that offer 100% bespoke design. These are ideal for community applications where it’s key that the branding of the application is truly aligned with that of the task and organisation it was built for. The custom UI enabled by MobileCaddy extends right through to the App Store listings and app icons.

The Bottom Line

Salesforce is a strong player on the MADP space. With the use of MobileCaddy it can be even stronger and address the concerns that Gartner had during its evaluation. Since the report Salesforce has also strengthened and refined its own position on mobile application development with the introduction of App Cloud Mobile.

Request an evaluation today to see how MobileCaddy and a Gartner-backed MADP can give you a true mobile advantage.

If you found this article interesting, our eBook can offer much deeper insight into how to leverage Salesforce to make sure you succeed with your own enterprise mobile apps.

Tags: Gartner, javascript, MobileSDK, Salesforce


Salesforce1 – How Offline is Offline?

Written by Todd Halfpenny

Offline and Online chart

With the recent push of Salesforce’s App Cloud Mobile, their Summer ‘16 release, and the update to Salesforce1 for iOS, you’d be forgiven if you thought that full offline was now available to all Salesforce mobile users through the stack mentioned above. But as always, the Devil is in the detail.

The number one thing of all time asked for, for Salesforce1… is offline.
– Marcus Torres, Senior Director, Salesforce

It’s no lie that some offline functionality is available, and as Marcus Torres, Senior Director Product Management mentions, offline was one of the most requested features in Salesforce1. What we need to be aware of, as CTOs, Solution Architects, and Developers, though, is just how much offline functionality we get.

Offline Data in Salesforce1

Included in what we do get in Salesforce1 with offline read/edit support is:

  • Records for Recent Objects recently accessed, limited for the first five objects (excluding Files) in the Recent section of the Salesforce1 navigation menu.
  • Records for Other Objects viewed in current session
  • Note: that recent means records that have been accessed within the last two weeks.

So what don’t you get?

  • Access to Recent Objects you’ve never viewed
  • Access to Recent Objects you’ve not viewed in the last two weeks
  • Access to Recent Objects that are not in the top 5 of the “Recent section of the Salesforce1 navigation menu”
  • Access to other objects that have not been accessed in the current session
  • Access to dashboards not seen during the current session
  • Access to Visualforce pages.

Why is this Important?

A few scenarios spring to mind that could cause some issues with the above limitations:

Imagine a user of your app is a salesperson of agricultural equipment, they’re out visiting a client in the poorly connected countryside. They’ve already cached the account data they’ll need (they’ve even remembered to do that) and that’s proved useful as they were able to create a lead offline. Their meeting finishes earlier so they pop to another client at another farm nearby. That meeting goes really well, and they want to capture new opportunities… but they can’t, since this account’s details weren’t in their cache.

Or how about your users trying to take an order for a product they’ve not accessed before whilst selling medical supplies in a hospital?

If you can’t fulfill these tasks then your process,
and your business, is broken.

When it comes to business critical processes, not only complex ones, you need to go beyond Salesforce1’s offline capability.

With MobileCaddy your device not only downloads and securely stores your recent items – using the same encrypted method used in Salesforce1 – it also pulls down and keeps in sync any records that you might need for your work, so you can perform all your tasks offline.

MobileCaddy and Offline-First

MobileCaddy is built with disconnected users at its heart. By designing and supporting apps with an Offline-First approach MobileCaddy not only has its data offline, but also its logic. This means complex business logic and constraints – including parent/child relationships, field level access control, etc – are all in place and functioning, allowing for 100% offline create/edit support.

We’ve incorporated unique features such as full offline data and logic,
customisable UI, performance monitoring and analytics
– Justin Halfpenny, CEO, MobileCaddy

And because MobileCaddy apps are Offline-First they’re also faster. The majority of database reads and writes are to the local store, meaning normal page and app tasks are completed instantaneously, rather than waiting for network transactions to take place. As our CEO recently stated, app performance is not to be underestimated in the enterprise space.

MobileCaddy takes app performance even further. Instead of having all fields for all records buzzing up and down over the wire, we’re able to define exactly which fields should be mobilised, and also which records users require. And during sync operations we also only pass deltas across, lightening the load even further.

Take Home

When contemplating your Salesforce mobile solution make sure you’re aware of the constraints in the offerings available, and that you pick the route that’s going to give your organisation or your clients the mobile advantage they deserve. And in the words of Adam Seligman (EVP, App Cloud, Salesforce), “Sometimes you want to build completely custom apps… take advantage of local device features… do offline sync… we’ve got that in the mobile SDK.”

Fill-in the form below to see how MobileCaddy can really take your apps offline and experience the value of true enterprise mobility

Tags: development, offline, Salesforce, Salesforce1


London Salesforce Developer Meetup – March Review

Written by Todd Halfpenny

Last month I attended the London Salesforce Developers’ meetup, which was hosted at the SkillsMatter at CodeNode in Moorgate. You may remember that this is where the 2016 London’s Calling Salesforce community event was recently held.

MobileCaddy is the new proud video sponsor and was recording both talks, which will be published to the new London Salesforce Developers YouTube Channel as they become available. So why not check out the existing videos once you’re done reading this, as they include my goodself doing a live coding demo – building a fully offline Salesforce mobile app using the MobileCaddy SDK.

There were two talks on the night, both Lightning related, though they were quite different from each other. I suppose that’s what happens when you get a new, slightly ambiguous, branding phrase.

Migrating your Apps to Lightning – John Belo

John is an ISV Technical Enablement Director (EMEA) for Salesforce and I’d met him a couple of times before. He had offered his assistance to us at MobileCaddy if we ever needed help with anything Salesforce Mobile SDK related, a kind offer to which I replied that we found them very helpful already – MobileCaddy has actually been submitting code to the core Salesforce Mobile SDK project for a couple of years, providing improvements and bug fixes alike.

The team who work on the Salesforce Mobile SDK are key to anyone wanting to build mobile apps that offer true offline capabilities, and stretch the demands beyond those that are catered for by Salesforce1. We’re thankful for them doing such a great job, so that we can do ours.

migrating-your-apps

 

John was here to talk about how ISVs can start migrating their apps to Lightning. This is something I’m sure Salesforce wants to really push, to generate some traction around the technology. It was interesting to see though, when asked, how many users were already using Lightning in their apps, which turned out to be only one amongst us all. Other notable stats mentioned were;

  • 140+ Lightning-ready Apps
  • 50+ Lightning-ready Components

These stats show that although Salesforce is mightily keen on pushing Lightning, it still has a long way to go to gain traction and take-up among ISVs and users alike.

The core of the talk was focused around how ISVs can start using Lightning today to prepare themselves for further takup by users. There are several routes to this, depending on how much work you want to undertake, and also the architecture of what you currently have (if anything). These approaches range from simply adopting the Lightning Design System for style, right through re-writing apps with Lightning components.

One handy route to slowly and controllably adopting Lightning is to migrate chunks of functionality to Lightning, piecemeal. This can be achieved by using Lightning components within Visualforce pages.

vf-lightning-component-sm

Pic courtesy Salesforce

Talks like this from the ISV team are really handy, though I think it will take more (at least more time) for partners to really start rolling Lightning into their current offerings, especially when there are still some elements that are’t available through Lightning yet (and no concrete ETAs, either).

From a mobile perspective, the drive to Lightning may smooth the road to getting apps to fit well with Salesforce1, though of course they will then be subject to the constraints that come with it. Applications that still require advanced features, such as a fully customised UI, or full offline support, need to be built outside of Salesforce1. If your app has the requirements then MobileCaddy is the answer for you.

Lightning Connect Int. with OData Services – Marc Paris

Marc is a Technical Architect at Cognizant and kicked off a passionate talk on Lightning Connect. He talked about how and when it can be used to pull external data into the Salesforce UI.

Lightning Connect was launched towards the end of 2014, but I hadn’t really seen it in action – or maybe I had, and I wasn’t aware of what was happening under the hood, but I suppose that’s its beauty, right?

Olingo Logo

 

Lightning Connect can be used to connect in these scenarios;

  1. Lightning Connect ←→ Lightning Connect – for inter-org communication
  2. Lightning Connect ← → oData Service
  3. Lightning Connect ← → Custom Adapter

Marc took us through a demo of the second option, where he had a basic oData service running using the Apache olingo project. He showed us how, through config, the connection could be added, and how Salesforce would use the web service to discover the objects available. Lightning Connect can support the following features, as long as the backend service does likewise;

  • Create, Read, Update, Delete
  • Filters
  • Inter-object Relationships
  • Integration with Global Search.

His demo included querying the REST API in a basic manner, as well as using page layouts to filter the data that is requested from the source. He also showed us basic update and delete flows too… it all seems very powerful.

£33k per external source, wowee! – Todd Halfpenny 2014

The power though does come at a cost, currently £33,000 per external data source… a price tag though that may well put a big-ol-hole in a lot of business plans.

It’s interesting to think that through the use of Lightning Connect that no data is stored on SFDC itself, and that it is all pulled/pushed in real-time to and from the external data source. Whether this helps with any data residency restrictions is, of course, another topic altogether. In the questions that followed Marc’s talk the mention of PCI was also raised, but it seemed we all agreed that internal logs may also contain data, so this would need further investigation.

I will post a link to Marc’s slides once I have it.

Wrap Up

Initial thanks, as always, go to the organising crew, and especially to Anup as he was the only one able to make this outing. And thanks to must go to Cognizant who sourced the venue, beers, and pizza (and chocolate snacks too).

Lightning isn’t going to go away, but the path for ISVs is a long one, and one that is going to need investment. With regards to Lightning and fully offline, robust mobile apps, there are still several gaps to be filled. For these reasons it’s not currently our go-to framework; it does not, at the current time, lend itself to the control and extensibility needed to support mobile apps that fulfil parts of critical business processes. Performance issues are another reason that, at present, we are steering our partners and clients to alternative such as Ionic, though of course we hope that this will change in future.

And as for Lightning Connect, I have so many ideas on how it could be used, I just don’t have pockets deep enough.

Useful Links

Tags: meetup, Salesforce


London’s Calling – A 1st Time Speaker’s View

Written by Todd Halfpenny

londons-calling-1

 

Unless you’ve been living under some kind of Salesforce-repellent-rock you’ll be aware that the inaugural London’s Calling event took place on the 5th Feb. But if you were under that rock then I’ll quickly mention that it was Europe’s largest Salesforce Community event to date.

When I first heard of the event, at the monthly London Salesforce Developers meetup, I was very excited, and pitched to the MobileCaddy team that we should submit a talk idea… so to say I was honoured to have our MobileCaddy CFP response accepted was (is) of course an understatement. There were 70 CFPs received by the organising team (more on that motley crew later) and there ended up being 28, plus two keynotes.

Only the Paranoid Mobile Apps Survive

This was to be my first speaker slot at a Salesforce event… I’d done a couple at the Ionic UK Meetup group before but they’re not on quite the same scale. My talk was entitled Only the Paranoid Mobile Apps Survive and focused on some key stumbling-blocks and factors that needed to be taken into consideration when wanting to take a critical business app mobile. Although our MobileCaddy SDK greatly helps in supporting the app designer and developer in these areas I was keen for my talk to steer clear of becoming a sales pitch. Having spoken to Simon following the acceptance of the talk into the program he mentioned that this angle was one that led them to choosing it for inclusion. Simon and co have been extraordinarily efficient since the event too. And in speaking of them, the fabulous organisers were;

In the lead up to the event Simon made sure I had a clear timetable for submission of various steps of the talk, and I don’t know if this is the norm, but it certainly helped me avoid a “last minute rush job”.

On the day I arrived early since MobileCaddy were also gold sponsors of the event and we had a booth to set up. I’ve no idea what time Jodi and the gang had gotten there but things were already in full flow… and the first sight of the T-shirts was really exciting… it was all very real.

I had planned to get to as many talks as I could, but the flow of attendees coming over to our stand was really quite astounding, and I made it to far fewer than I had hoped. It was a genuine pleasure though to experience a real informal, community atmosphere and to have so many chats with folk who were really interested in Salesforce and intrigued to learn more about how we’ve enabled true offline mobile Salesforce apps; the entire sponsors area had a real buzz, and feedback from the other sponsors seemed to mirror mine.

booth

 

Over lunch (which was top notch, by the way) I met a fellow speaker, David Biden who was also due give his talk in one of the afternoon slots. It was almost uncanny how similar his situation was to mine; a first time talker who had planned an anecdotal style talk who was eager to avoid pimping his own company. We shared thoughts on how tough 15-20 minute talks were to plan, trying to make sure there was enough depth without getting in so deep you run out of time. His presentation covered Salesforce in the Public Sector and is definitely worth 17 minutes of your time… so go watch the video once you’re done here.

Whilst setting up for my talk the event tech-chap in my room was baffled that my laptop hooked up to the projector without issue; well that’s Ubuntu for you 😉

guide

 

The talk went well, I think. Though there were a few spare seats, but in all honesty I wasn’t surprised… the three other talks on at the same time were being run by seasoned pros, and talks that I definitely would have wanted to attend. Of course I’d love any feedback so please feel free to have a gander and let me know your thoughts.

 

There’s no way I can’t write an article on the event without mentioning Peter Coffee’s closing keynote… full of food for thought and delivered in the coolest of fashion. Again, check out the vid and enjoy.

“He has two problems.
1) He’s dead.
2) When he was alive he wasn’t scalable.”
– @petercoffee on Steve Jobs

And following that was fun and frocking at the after-party, again the community spirit was in full flow and another chance for myself and the rest of the MobileCaddy team to mingle and chat… and by the time I left I have to be honest I was a little tipsy and very tired.

In wrapping up I can only say that I’m already looking forward to next year’s London’s Calling, and of course any of the other European events that were much talked about during the day. The organisers did a grand job of supporting me, and the rest of the community made me feel very welcome.

Tags: community, mobile, Salesforce


Источник: http://developer.mobilecaddy.net/tag/salesforce/

Introduction of Fibre-Reinforced Polymers − Polymers and Composites: Concepts, Properties and Processes

Open access peer-reviewed chapter

By Martin Alberto Masuelli

Reviewed: October 24th 2012Published: January 23rd 2013

DOI: 10.5772/54629

1. Introduction

, alsois a composite material made of a polymer matrix reinforced with fibres. The fibres are usually glass, carbon, or aramid, although other fibres such as paper or wood or asbestos have been sometimes used. The polymer is usually an epoxy, vinylester or polyester thermosetting plastic, and phenol formaldehyde resins are still in use. FRPs are commonly used in the aerospace, automotive, marine, and construction industries.

Composite materials are engineered or naturally occurring materials made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties which remain separate and distinct within the finished structure. Most composites have strong, stiff fibres in a matrix which is weaker and less stiff. The objective is usually to make a component which is strong and stiff, often with a low density. Commercial material commonly has glass or carbon fibres in matrices based on thermosetting polymers, such as epoxy or polyester resins. Sometimes, thermoplastic polymers may be preferred, since they are moldable after initial production. There are further classes of composite in which the matrix is a metal or a ceramic. For the most part, these are still in a developmental stage, with problems of high manufacturing costs yet to be overcome [1]. Furthermore, in these composites the reasons for adding the fibres (or, in some cases, particles) are often rather complex; for example, improvements may be sought in creep, wear, fracture toughness, thermal MyDraw 5.0.2 With Crack Key Free Download (Latest) 2021, etc [2].

Fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) are composites used in almost every type of advanced engineering structure, with their usage ranging from aircraft, helicopters and spacecraft through to boats, ships and offshore platforms and to automobiles, sports goods, chemical processing equipment and civil infrastructure such as bridges and buildings. The usage of FRP composites continues to grow at an impressive rate as these materials are used more in their existing markets and become established in relatively new markets such as biomedical devices and civil structures. A key factor driving the increased applications of composites over the recent years is the development of new advanced forms of FRP materials. This includes developments in high performance resin systems and new styles of reinforcement, such as carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles. This book provides an up-to-date account of the fabrication, mechanical properties, delamination resistance, impact tolerance and applications of 3D FRP composites [3].

The fibre reinforced polymer composites (FRPs) are increasingly being considered as an enhancement to and/or substitute for infrastructure components or systems that are constructed of traditional civil engineering materials, namely concrete and steel. FRP composites are lightweight, no-corrosive, exhibit high specific strength and specific stiffness, are easily constructed, and can be tailored to satisfy performance requirements. Due to these advantageous characteristics, FRP composites have been included in new construction and rehabilitation of structures through its use as reinforcement in concrete, bridge decks, modular structures, formwork, and external reinforcement for strengthening and seismic upgrade [4].

The applicability of Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) reinforcements to concrete structures as a substitute for steel bars or prestressing tendons has been actively studied in numerous research laboratories and professional organizations around the world. FRP reinforcements offer a number of advantages such as corrosion resistance, non-magnetic properties, high tensile strength, lightweight and ease of handling. However, they generally have a linear elastic response in tension up to failure (described as a brittle failure) and a relatively poor transverse or shear resistance. They also have poor resistance to fire and when exposed to high temperatures. They loose significant strength upon bending, and they are sensitive to stress-rupture effects. Moreover, their cost, whether considered per unit weight or on the basis of force carrying capacity, is high in comparison to conventional steel reinforcing bars or prestressing tendons. From a structural engineering viewpoint, the most serious problems with FRP reinforcements are the lack of plastic behavior and the very low shear strength in the transverse direction. Such characteristics may lead to premature tendon rupture, particularly when combined effects are present, such as at shear-cracking planes in reinforced concrete beams where dowel action exists. The dowel action reduces residual tensile and shear resistance in the tendon. Solutions and limitations of use have been offered and continuous improvements are expected in the future. The unit cost of FRP reinforcements is expected to decrease significantly with increased market share and demand. However, even today, there are applications where FRP reinforcements are cost effective and justifiable. Such cases include the use of bonded FRP sheets or plates in repair and strengthening of concrete structures, and the use of FRP meshes or textiles or fabrics in thin cement products. The cost of repair and rehabilitation of a structure is always, in relative terms, substantially higher than the cost of the initial structure. Repair generally requires a relatively small volume of repair materials but a relatively high commitment in labor. Moreover the cost of labor in developed countries is so high that the cost of material becomes secondary. Thus the highest the performance and durability of the repair material is, the more cost-effective is the repair. This implies that material cost How To Use The QuickBooks Password 2021 Crack Version Reset Tool not really an issue in repair and that the fact that FRP repair materials are costly is not a constraining drawback [5].

When considering only energy and material resources it appears, on the surface, the argument for FRP composites in a sustainable built environment is questionable. However, such a conclusion needs to be evaluated in terms of potential advantages present in use of FRP composites related to considerations such as:

  • Higher strength

  • Lighter weight

  • Higher performance

  • Longer lasting

  • Rehabilitating existing structures and extending their life

  • Seismic upgrades

  • Defense systems

  • Space systems

  • Ocean environments

In the case of FRP composites, environmental concerns appear to be a barrier to its feasibility as a sustainable material especially when considering fossil fuel depletion, air pollution, smog, and acidification associated with its production. In addition, the ability to recycle FRP composites is limited and, unlike steel and timber, structural components cannot be reused to perform a similar function in another structure. However, evaluating the environmental impact of FRP composites in infrastructure applications, specifically through life cycle analysis, may reveal direct and indirect benefits that are more competitive than conventional materials.

Composite materials have developed greatly since they were first introduced. However, before composite materials can be used as an alternative to conventional materials as part of a sustainable environment a number of needs remain.

  • Availability of standardized durability characterization data for FRP composite materials.

  • Integration of durability data and methods for service life prediction of structural members utilizing FRP composites.

  • Development of methods and techniques for materials selection based on life cycle assessments of structural components and systems.

Ultimately, in order for composites to truly be considered a viable alternative, they must be structurally and economically feasible. Numerous studies regarding the structural feasibility of composite materials are widely available in literature [6]. However, limited studies are available on the economic and environmental feasibility of these materials from the perspective of a life cycle approach, since short term data is available or only economic costs are considered in the comparison. Additionally, the long term affects of using composite materials needs to be determined. The byproducts of the production, the sustainability of the constituent materials, and the potential to recycle composite materials needs to be assessed in order to determine of composite materials can be part of a sustainable environment. Therefore in this chapter describe the physicochemical properties of polymers and composites more used in Civil Engineering. The theme will be addressed in a simple and basic for better understanding.

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2. Manufactured process and basic concepts

The synthetic polymers are generally manufactured by polycondensation, polymerization or polyaddition. The polymers combined with various agents to enhance or in any way alter the material properties of polymers the result is referred to as a plastic. The Composite plastics can be of homogeneous or heterogeneous mix. Composite plastics refer to those types of plastics that result from bonding two or more homogeneous materials with different material properties to derive a final product with certain desired material and mechanical properties. The Fibre reinforced plastics (or fiber ionic mobile app builder crack - Free Activators polymers) are a category of composite plastics that specifically use fibre materials (not mix with polymer) to mechanically enhance the strength and elasticity of plastics. The original plastic material without fibre reinforcement is known as the matrix. The matrix is a tough but relatively weak plastic that is reinforced by stronger stiffer reinforcing filaments or fibres. The extent that strength and elasticity are enhanced in a fibre reinforced plastic depends on the mechanical properties of the fibre and matrix, their volume relative to one another, and the fibre length and orientation within the matrix. Reinforcement of the matrix occurs by definition when the FRP material exhibits increased strength or elasticity relative to the strength and elasticity of the matrix alone.

Polymers are different from other construction materials like ceramics and metals, because of their macromolecular nature. The covalently bonded, long chain structure makes them macromolecules and determines, via the weight averaged molecular weight, Mw, their processability, like spin- blow- deep draw- generally melt-formability. The number averaged molecular weight, Mn, determines the mechanical strength, and high molecular weights are beneficial for properties like strain-to-break, impact resistance, wear, etc. Thus, natural limits are met, since too high molecular weights yield too high shear and elongational viscosities that make polymers inprocessable. Prime examples are the very useful poly-tetra-fluor-ethylenes, PTFE’s, and ultrahigh-molecular-weight-poly-ethylenes, UHMWPE’s, and not only garbage bags are made of polyethylene, PE, but also high-performance fibers that are even used for bullet proof vests (alternatively made from, also inprocessable in the melt, rigid aromatic polyamides). The resulting mechanical properties of these high performance fibers, with moduli of 150 GPa and strengths of up to 4 GPa, represent the optimal use of what the potential of the molecular structure of polymers yields, combined with their low density. Thinking about polymers, it becomes clear why living nature used the polymeric concept to build its structures, and not only in high strength applications like wood, silk or spider-webs [7].

2.1. Polymers

The linking of small molecules (monomers) to make larger molecules is a polymer. Polymerization requires that each small molecule have at least two reaction points or functional groups. There are two distinct major types of polymerization processes, condensation polymerization, in which the chain growth is accompanied by elimination of small molecules such as H2O or CH3OH, and addition polymerization, in which the polymer is formed without the loss of other materials. There are many variants and subclasses of polymerization reactions.

The polymer chains can be classified in linear polymer chain, branched polymer chain, and cross-linked polymer chain. The structure of the repeating unit is the difunctional monomeric unit, or “mer.” In the presence of catalysts or initiators, the monomer yields a polymer by the joining together of n-mers. If n is a small number, 2–10, the products are dimers, trimers, tetramers, or oligomers, and the materials are usually gases, liquids, oils, or brittle solids. In most solid polymers, n has values ranging from a few score to several hundred thousand, and the corresponding molecular weights range from a few thousand to several million. The end groups of this example of addition polymers are shown to be fragments of the initiator. If only one monomer is polymerized, the product is called a homopolymer. The polymerization of a mixture of two monomers of suitable reactivity leads to the formation of a copolymer, a polymer in which the two types of mer units have entered the chain in a more or less random fashion. If chains of one homopolymer are chemically joined to chains of another, the product is called a block or graft copolymer.

Isotactic and syndiotactic (stereoregular) polymers are formed in the presence of complex catalysts, or by changing polymerization conditions, for example, by lowering the temperature. The groups attached to the chain in a stereoregular polymer are in a spatially ordered arrangement. The regular structures of the isotactic and syndiotactic forms make them often capable of crystallization. The crystalline melting points of isotactic polymers are often substantially higher than the softening points of the atactic product.

The spatially oriented polymers can be classified in atactic (random; dlldl or lddld, and so on), syndiotactic (alternating; dldl, and so on), and isotactic (right- or left-handed; dddd, or llll, and so on). For illustration, the heavily marked bonds are assumed to project up from the paper, and the dotted bonds down. Thus in a fully syndiotactic polymer, asymmetric carbons alternate in their left- or right-handedness (alternating d, l configurations), while in an isotactic polymer, successive carbons have the same steric configuration (d or l). Among the several kinds of polymerization catalysis, free-radical initiation has been most thoroughly studied and is most widely employed. Atactic polymers are readily formed by free-radical polymerization, at moderate temperatures, of vinyl and diene monomers and some of their derivatives. Some polymerizations can be initiated by materials, often called ionic catalysts, which contain highly polar reactive sites or complexes. The term heterogeneous catalyst is often applicable to these materials because many of the catalyst systems are insoluble in monomers and other solvents. These polymerizations are usually carried out in solution from which the polymer can be obtained by evaporation of the solvent or by precipitation on the addition of a nonsolvent. A distinguishing feature of complex catalysts is the ability of some representatives of each type to initiate stereoregular polymerization at ordinary temperatures or to cause the formation of polymers which can be crystallized [1, 6].

2.1.1. Polymerization

Polymerization, emulsion polymerization any process in which relatively small molecules, called monomers, combine chemically to produce a very large chainlike or network molecule, called a polymer. The monomer molecules may be all alike, or they may represent two, three, or more different compounds. Usually at least 100 monomer molecules must be combined to make a product that has certain unique physical properties-such as elasticity, high tensile strength, or the ability to form fibres-that differentiate polymers from substances composed of smaller and simpler molecules; often, many thousands of monomer units are incorporated in a single molecule of a polymer. The formation of stable covalent chemical bonds between the monomers sets polymerization apart from other processes, such as crystallization, in which large numbers of molecules aggregate under the influence of weak intermolecular forces.

Two classes of polymerization usually are distinguished. In condensation polymerization, each step of the process is accompanied by formation of a molecule of some simple compound, often water. In addition polymerization, monomers react to form a polymer without the formation of by-products. Addition polymerizations usually are carried out in the presence of catalysts, which in certain cases exert control over structural details that have important effects on the properties of the polymer [8].

Linear polymers, which are composed of chainlike molecules, may be viscous liquids or solids with varying degrees of crystallinity; a number of them can be dissolved in certain liquids, and they soften or melt upon heating. Cross-linked polymers, in which the molecular structure is a network, are thermosetting resins (i.e., they form under the influence of heat but, once formed, do not melt or soften upon reheating) that do not dissolve in solvents. Both linear and cross-linked polymers can be made by either addition or condensation polymerization.

2.1.2. Polycondensation

The polycondensation a process for the production of polymers from bifunctional and polyfunctional compounds (monomers), accompanied by the elimination of low-molecular weight by-products (for example, water, alcohols, and hydrogen halides). A typical example of polycondensation is the synthesis of complex polyester.

The process is called homopolycondensation if the minimum possible number of monomer types for a given case participates, and this number is usually two. If at least one monomer more than the number required for the given reaction participates in polycondensation, the process is called copolycondensation. Polycondensation in which only bifunctional compounds participate leads to the formation of linear macromolecules and is called linear polycondensation. If molecules with three or more functional groups participate in polycondensation, three-dimensional structures are formed and the process is called three-dimensional polycondensation. In cases where the degree of completion of polycondensation and the mean length of the macromolecules are limited by the equilibrium concentration of the reagents and reaction products, the process is called equilibrium (reversible) polycondensation. If the limiting factors are kinetic rather than thermodynamic, the process is called nonequilibrium (irreversible) polycondensation.

Polycondensation is often complicated by side reactions, in which both the original monomers and the polycondensation products (oligomers and polymers) may participate. Such reactions include the reaction of monomer or oligomer with a mono-functional compound (which may be present as an impurity), intramolecular cyclization (ring closure), and degradation of the macromolecules of the resultant polymer. The rate competition of polycondensation and the side reactions determines the molecular weight, yield, and molecular weight distribution of the polycondensation polymer.

Polycondensation is characterized by disappearance of the monomer in the early stages of the process and a sharp increase in molecular weight, in spite of a slight change in the extent of conversion in the region of greater than 95-percent conversion.

A necessary condition for the formation of macro-molecular polymers in linear polycondensation is the equivalence of the initial functional groups that react with one another.

Polycondensation is accomplished by one of three methods:

  1. in a melt, when a mixture of the initial compounds is heated for a long period to 10°-20°C above the melting (softening) point of the resultant polymer;

  2. in solution, when the monomers are present in the same phase in the solute state;

  3. on the phase boundary between two immiscible liquids, in which one of the initial compounds is found in each of the liquid phases (interphase polycondensation).

Polycondensation processes play an important role in nature and technology. Polycondensation or similar reactions are the basis for the biosynthesis of the most important biopolymers-proteins, nucleic acids, and cellulose. Polycondensation is widely used in industry for the production of polyesters (polyethylene terephthalate, polycarbonates, and alkyd resins), polyamides, phenol-formaldehyde resins, urea-formaldehyde resins, and certain silicones [9]. In the period 1965-70, polycondensation acquired great importance in connection with the development of industrial production of a series of new polymers, including heat-resistant polymers (polyarylates, aromatic polyimides, polyphe-nylene oxides, and polysulfones).

2.1.3. Polyaddition

The polyaddition reactions are similar to polycondensation reactions because they are also step reactions, however without splitting off low molecular weight by-products. The reaction is exothermic rather than endothermic and therefore cannot be stopped at will. Typical for polyaddition reaction is that individual atoms, usually H-atoms, wander from one monomer to another as the two monomers combine through a covalent bond. The monomers, as in polycondensation reactions, have to be added in stoichiometric amounts. These reactions do not start spontaneously and they are slow.

Polyaddition does not play a significant role in the production of thermoplastics. It is commonly encountered with cross-linked polymers. Polyurethane, which can be either a thermoplastic or thermosets, is synthesized by the reaction of multi-functional isocyanates with multifunctional amines or alcohol. Thermosetting epoxy resins are formed by polyaddition of epoxides with curing agents, such as amines and acid anhydrides.

In comparing chain reaction polymerization with the other two types of polymerization the following principal differences should be noted: Chain reaction polymerization, or simply called polymerization, is a chain reaction as the name implies. Only individual monomer molecules add to a reactive growing chain end, except for recombination of two radical chain ends or reactions of a reactive chain end with an added modifier molecule. The activation energy for chain initiation is much grater than for the subsequent growth reaction and growth, therefore, occurs very rapidly.

2.2. Composites

Composite is any material made of more than one component. There are a lot of composites around you. Concrete is a composite. It's made of cement, gravel, and sand, and often has steel rods inside to reinforce it. Those shiny balloons you get in the hospital when you're sick are made of a composite, which consists of a polyester sheet and an aluminum foil sheet, made into a sandwich. The polymer composites made from polymers, or from polymers along with other kinds of materials [7]. But specifically the fiber-reinforced composites are materials in which a fiber made of one material is embedded in another material.

2.2.1. Polymer composites

The polymer composites are any of the combinations or compositions that comprise two or more materials as separate phases, at least one of which is a polymer. By combining a polymer with another material, such as glass, carbon, or another polymer, it is often possible to obtain unique combinations or levels of properties. Typical examples of synthetic polymeric composites include glass- carbon- or polymer-fiber-reinforced, thermoplastic or thermosetting resins, carbon-reinforced rubber, polymer blends, silica- or mica-reinforced resins, and polymer-bonded or -impregnated concrete or wood. It is also often useful to consider as composites such materials as coatings (pigment-binder combinations) and crystalline polymers (crystallites in a polymer matrix). Typical naturally occurring composites include wood (cellulosic fibers bonded with lignin) and bone (minerals bonded with collagen). On the other hand, polymeric compositions compounded with a plasticizer or very low proportions of pigments or processing aids are not ordinarily considered as composites.

Typically, the goal is to improve strength, stiffness, or toughness, or dimensional stability by embedding particles or fibers in a matrix or binding phase. A second goal is to use inexpensive, readily available fillers to extend a more expensive or scarce resin; this goal is increasingly important as petroleum supplies become costlier and less reliable. Still other applications include the use of some filler such as glass spheres to improve processability, the incorporation of dry-lubricant particles such as molybdenum sulfide to make a self-lubricating bearing, and the use of fillers to reduce permeability.

The most common fiber-reinforced polymer composites are based on glass fibers, cloth, mat, or roving embedded in a matrix of an epoxy or polyester resin. Reinforced thermosetting resins containing boron, polyaramids, and especially carbon fibers confer especially high levels of strength and stiffness. Carbon-fiber composites have a relative stiffness five times that of steel. Because of these excellent properties, many applications are uniquely suited for epoxy and polyester composites, such as components in new jet aircraft, parts for automobiles, boat hulls, rocket motor cases, and chemical reaction vessels.

Although the most dramatic properties are found with reinforced thermosetting resins such as epoxy and polyester resins, significant improvements can be obtained with many reinforced thermoplastic resins as well. Polycarbonates, polyethylene, and polyesters are among the resins available as glass-reinforced composition. The combination of inexpensive, one-step fabrication by injection molding, with improved properties has made it possible for reinforced thermoplastics to replace metals in many applications in appliances, instruments, automobiles, and tools.

In the development of other composite systems, various matrices are possible; for example, polyimide resins are excellent matrices for glass fibers, and give a high- performance composite. Different fibers are of potential interest, including polymers [such as poly(vinyl alcohol)], single-crystal ceramic whiskers (such as sapphire), and various metallic fibers.

Long ago, people living in Ionic mobile app builder crack - Free Activators and Central America had used natural rubber latex, polyisoprene, to make things like gloves and boots, as well as rubber balls which they used to play games that were a lot like modern basketball. He took two layers of cotton fabric and embedded them in natural rubber, also known as polyisoprene, making a three-layered sandwich like the one you see on your right (Remember, cotton is made up of a natural polymer called cellulose). This made for good raincoats because, while the rubber made it waterproof, the cotton layers made it comfortable to wear, to make a material that has the properties of both its components. In this case, we combine the water-resistance of polyisoprene and the comfort of cotton.

Modern composites are usually made of two components, a fiber and matrix. The fiber is most often glass, but sometimes Kevlar, carbon fiber, or polyethylene. The matrix is usually a thermoset like an epoxy resin, polydicyclopentadiene, or a polyimide. The fiber is embedded in the matrix in order to make the matrix stronger. Fiber-reinforced composites have two things going for them. They are strong and light. They are often stronger than steel, but weigh much less. This means that composites can be used to make automobiles lighter, and thus much more fuel efficient.

A common fiber-reinforced composite is FiberglasTM. Its matrix is made by reacting polyester with carbon-carbon double bonds in its backbone, and styrene. We pour a mix of the styrene and polyester over a mass of glass fibers.

The styrene and the double bonds in the polyester react by free radical vinyl polymerization to form a crosslinked resin. The glass fibers are trapped inside, where they act as a reinforcement. In FiberglasTM the fibers are not lined up in any particular direction. They are just a tangled mass, like you see on the right. But we can make the composite stronger by lining up all the fibers in the same direction. Oriented fibers do some weird things to the composite. When you pull on the composite in the direction of the fibers, the composite is very strong. But if you pull on it at right angles to the fiber direction, it is not very strong at all [8-9]. This is not always bad, because sometimes we only need the composite to be strong in one direction. Sometimes the item you are making will only be under stress in one direction. But sometimes we need strength in more than one direction. So we simply point the fibers in more than one direction. We often do this by using a woven fabric of the fibers to reinforce the composite. The woven fibers give a composite good strength in many directions.

The polymeric matrix holds the fibers together. A loose bundle of fibers would not be of much use. Also, though fibers are strong, they can be brittle. The matrix can absorb energy by deforming under stress. This is to say, the matrix adds toughness to the composite. And finally, while fibers have good tensile strength (that is, they are strong when you pull on them), they usually have awful compressional strength. That is, they buckle when you squash them. The matrix gives compressional strength to the composite.

Not all fibers are the same. Now it may seem strange that glass is used as reinforcement, as glass is really easy to break. But for some reason, when glass is spun into really tiny fibers, it acts very different. Glass fibers are strong, and flexible.

Still, there are stronger fibers out there. This is a good thing, because sometimes glass just isn't strong and tough enough. For some things, like airplane parts, that undergo a lot of stress, you need to break out the fancy fibers. When cost is no object, you can use stronger, but more expensive fibers, like KevlarTM, carbon fiber. Carbon fiber (SpectraTM) is usually stronger than KevlarTM, that is, it can withstand more force without breaking. But KevlarTM tends to be tougher. This means it can absorb more energy without breaking. It can stretch a little to keep from breaking, more so than carbon fiber can. But SpectraTM, which is a kind of polyethylene, is stronger and tougher than both carbon fiber and KevlarTM.

Different jobs call for different matrices. The unsaturated polyester/styrene systems at are one example. They are fine for everyday applications. Chevrolet Corvette bodies are made from composites using unsaturated polyester matrices and glass fibers. But they have some drawbacks. They shrink a good deal when they're cured, they can absorb water very easily, and their impact strength is low.

2.2.2. Biocomposites

For many decades, the residential construction field has used timber as its main source of building material for the frames of modern American homes. The American timber industry produced a record 49.5 billion board feet of lumber in 1999, and another 48.0 billion board feet in 2002. At the same time that lumber production is peaking, the home ownership rate reached a record high of 69.2%, with over 977,000 homes being sold in 2002. Because residential construction accounts for one-third of the total softwood lumber use in the United States, there is an increasing demand for alternate materials. Use of sawdust not only provides an alternative but also increases the use of the by product efficiently. Wood plastic composites (WPC) is a relatively new category of materials that covers a broad range of composite materials utilizing an organic resin binder (matrix) and fillers composed of cellulose materials. The new and rapidly developing biocomposite materials are high technology products, which have one unique advantage – the wood filler can include sawdust and scrap wood products. Consequently, no additional wood resources are Charles Proxy 4.2 Full Crack + License Key Full Download to manufacture biocomposites. Waste products that would traditraditionally cost money for proper disposal, now become a beneficial resource, allowing recycling to be both profitable and environmentally conscious. The use of biocomposites and WPC has increased rapidly all over the world, with the end users for these composites in the construction, motor vehicle, and furniture industries. One of the primary problems related to the use of biocomposites is the flammability of the two main components (binder and filler). If a flame retardant were added, this would require the adhesion of the fiber and the matrix not to be disturbed by the retardant. The challenge is to develop a composite that will not burn and will maintain its level of mechanical performance. In lieu of organic matrix compounds, inorganic matrices can be utilized to improve the fire resistance. Inorganic-based wood composites are those that consist of a mineral mix as the binder system. Such inorganic binder systems include gypsum and Portland cement, both of which are highly resistant to fire and insects. The main disadvantage with these systems is the maximum amount of sawdust or fibers than can be incorporated is low. One relatively new type of inorganic matrix is potassium aluminosilicate, an environmentally friendly compound made from naturally occurring materials. The Federal Aviation Administration has investigated the feasibility of using this matrix in commercial aircraft due to its ability to resist temperatures of up to 1000 ºC without generating smoke, and its ability to enable carbon composites to withstand temperatures of 800 ºC and maintain 63% of its original flexural strength. Potassium aluminosilicate matrices are compatible with many common building material including clay brick, masonry, concrete, steel, titanium, balsa, oak, pine, and particleboard [10].

2.3. Fiberglass

Fiberglass refers to a group of products made from individual glass fibers combined into a variety of forms. Glass fibers can be divided into two major groups according to their geometry: continuous fibers used in yarns and textiles, and the discontinuous (short) fibers used as batts, blankets, or boards for insulation and filtration. Fiberglass can be formed into yarn much like wool or cotton, and woven into fabric which is sometimes used for draperies. Fiberglass textiles are commonly used as a reinforcement material for molded and laminated plastics. Fiberglass wool, a thick, fluffy material made from discontinuous fibers, is used for thermal insulation and sound absorption. It is commonly found in ship and submarine bulkheads and hulls; automobile engine compartments and body panel liners; in furnaces and air conditioning units; acoustical wall and ceiling panels; and architectural partitions. Fiberglass can be tailored for specific applications such as Type E (electrical), used as electrical insulation tape, textiles and reinforcement; Type C (chemical), which has superior acid resistance, and Type T, for thermal insulation [11].

Though commercial use of glass fiber is relatively recent, artisans created glass strands for decorating goblets and vases during the Renaissance. A French physicist, Rene-Antoine Ferchault de Reaumur, produced textiles decorated with fine glass strands in 1713. Glass wool, a fluffy mass of discontinuous fiber in random lengths, was first produced in Europe in 1900, using a process that involved drawing fibers from rods horizontally to a revolving drum [12].

The basic raw materials for fiberglass products are a variety of natural minerals and manufactured chemicals. The major ingredients are silica sand, limestone, and soda ash. Other ingredients may include calcined alumina, borax, feldspar, nepheline syenite, magnesite, and kaolin clay, among others. Silica sand is used as the glass former, and soda ash and limestone help primarily to lower the melting temperature. Other ingredients are used to improve certain properties, such as borax for chemical resistance. Waste glass, also called cullet, is also used as a raw material. The raw materials must be carefully weighed ionic mobile app builder crack - Free Activators exact quantities and thoroughly mixed together (called batching) before being melted into glass.

2.3.1. The manufacturing process

2.3.1.1. Melting

Once mcafee antivirus free download full version with crack 2019 - Crack Key For U batch is prepared, it is fed into a furnace for melting. The furnace may be heated by electricity, fossil fuel, or a combination of the two. Temperature must be precisely controlled to maintain a smooth, steady flow of glass. The molten glass must be kept at a higher temperature (about 1371 °C) than other types of glass in order to be formed into fiber. Once the glass becomes molten, it is transferred to the forming equipment via a channel (forehearth) located at the end of the furnace [13].

2.3.1.2. Forming into fibers

Several different processes are used to form fibers, depending on the type of fiber. Textile fibers may be formed from molten glass directly from the furnace, or the molten glass may be fed first to a machine that forms glass marbles of about 0.62 inch (1.6 cm) in diameter. These marbles allow the glass to be inspected visually for impurities. In both the direct melt and marble melt process, the glass or glass marbles are fed through electrically heated bushings (also called spinnerets). The bushing is made of platinum or metal alloy, with anywhere from 200 to 3,000 very fine orifices. The molten glass passes through the orifices and comes out as fine filaments [13].

2.3.1.3. Continuous-filament process

A long, continuous fiber can be produced through the continuous-filament process. After the glass flows through the holes in the bushing, multiple strands are caught up on a high-speed winder. The winder revolves at about 3 km a minute, much faster than the rate of flow from the bushings. The tension pulls out the filaments while still molten, forming strands a fraction of the diameter of the openings in the bushing. A chemical binder is applied, which helps keep the fiber from breaking during later processing. The filament is then wound onto tubes. It can now be twisted and plied into yarn [14].

2.3.1.4. Staple-fiber process

An alternative method is the staplefiber process. As the molten glass flows through the bushings, jets of air rapidly cool the filaments. The turbulent bursts of air also break the filaments into lengths of 20-38 cm. These filaments fall through a spray of lubricant onto a revolving drum, where they form a thin web. The web is drawn from the drum and pulled into a continuous strand of loosely assembled fibers [15]. This strand can be processed into yarn by the same processes used for wool and cotton.

2.3.1.5. Chopped fiber

Instead of being formed into yarn, the continuous or long-staple strand may be chopped into short lengths. The strand is mounted on a set of bobbins, called a creel, and pulled through a machine which chops it into short pieces. The chopped fiber is formed into mats to which a binder is added. After curing in an oven, the mat is rolled up. Various weights and thicknesses give products for shingles, built-up roofing, or decorative mats [16].

2.3.1.6. Glass wool

The rotary or spinner process is used to make glass wool. In this process, molten glass from the furnace flows into a cylindrical container having small holes. As the container spins rapidly, horizontal streams of glass flow out of the holes. The molten glass streams are converted into fibers by a downward blast of air, hot gas, or both. The fibers fall onto a conveyor belt, where they interlace with each other in a fleecy mass. This can be used for insulation, or the uninstall tool 3.5.8 crack - Activators Patch can be sprayed with a binder, compressed into the desired thickness, and cured in an oven. The heat sets the binder, and the resulting product may be a rigid or semi-rigid board, or a flexible bat [15-16].

2.3.1.7. Protective coatings

In addition to binders, other coatings are required for fiberglass products. Lubricants are used to reduce fiber abrasion and are either directly sprayed on the fiber or added into the binder. An anti-static composition is also sometimes sprayed onto the surface of fiberglass insulation mats during the cooling step. Cooling air drawn through the mat causes the anti-static agent to penetrate the entire thickness of the mat. The anti-static agent consists of two ingredients a material that minimizes the generation of static electricity, and a material that serves as a corrosion inhibitor and stabilizer.

Sizing is any coating applied to textile fibers in the forming operation, and may contain one or more components (lubricants, binders, or coupling agents). Coupling agents are used on strands that will be used for reinforcing plastics, to strengthen the bond to the reinforced material. Sometimes a finishing operation is required to remove these coatings, or to add another coating. For plastic reinforcements, sizings may be removed with heat or chemicals and a coupling agent applied. For decorative applications, fabrics must be heat treated to remove sizings and to set the weave. Dye base coatings are then applied before dying or printing [15-16].

2.3.1.8. Forming into shapes

Fiberglass products come in a wide variety of shapes, made using several processes. For example, fiberglass pipe insulation is wound onto rod-like forms called mandrels directly from the forming units, prior to curing. The mold forms, in lengths of 91 cm or less, are then cured in an oven. The cured lengths are then de-molded lengthwise, and sawn into specified dimensions. Facings are applied if required, and the product is packaged for shipment [17].

2.4. Carbon fibre

Carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer or carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP or CRP or often simply carbon fiber), is a very strong and light fiber-reinforced polymer which contains carbon fibers. Carbon fibres are created when polyacrylonitrile fibres (PAN), Pitch resins, or Rayon are carbonized (through oxidation and thermal pyrolysis) at high temperatures. Through further processes of graphitizing or stretching the fibres strength or elasticity can be enhanced respectively. Carbon fibres are manufactured in diameters analogous to glass fibres with diameters ranging from 9 to 17 μm. These fibres wound into larger threads for transportation and further production processes. Further production processes include weaving or braiding into carbon fabrics, cloths and mats analogous to those described for glass that can then be used in actual reinforcement processes. Carbon fibers are a new breed of high-strength materials. Carbon fiber has been described as a fiber containing at least 90% carbon obtained by the controlled pyrolysis of appropriate fibers. The existence of carbon fiber came into being in 1879 when Edison took out a patent for the manufacture of carbon filaments suitable for use in electric lamps [18].

2.4.1. Classification and types

Based on modulus, strength, and final heat treatment temperature, carbon fibers can be classified into the following categories:

  1. Based on carbon fiber properties, carbon fibers can be grouped into:

  • Ultra-high-modulus, type UHM (modulus >450Gpa)

  • High-modulus, type HM (modulus between 350-450Gpa)

  • Intermediate-modulus, type IM (modulus between 200-350Gpa)

  • Low modulus and high-tensile, type HT (modulus < 100Gpa, tensile strength > 3.0Gpa)

  • Super high-tensile, type SHT (tensile strength > 4.5Gpa)

  1. Based on precursor fiber materials, carbon fibers are classified into;

  • PAN-based carbon fibers

  • Pitch-based carbon fibers

  • Mesophase pitch-based carbon fibers

  • Isotropic pitch-based carbon fibers

  • Rayon-based carbon fibers

  • Gas-phase-grown carbon fibers

  1. Based on final heat treatment temperature, carbon fibers are classified into:

  • Type-I, high-heat-treatment carbon fibers (HTT), where final heat treatment temperature should be above 2000°C and can be associated with high-modulus type fiber.

  • Type-II, intermediate-heat-treatment carbon fibers (IHT), where final heat treatment temperature should be around or above 1500 °C and can be associated with high-strength type fiber.

  • Type-III, low-heat-treatment carbon fibers, where final heat treatment temperatures not greater than 1000 °C. These are low modulus and low strength materials [19].

2.4.2. Manufacture

In Textile Terms and Definitions, carbon fiber has been described as a fiber containing at least 90% carbon obtained by the controlled pyrolysis of appropriate fibers. The term "graphite fiber" is used to describe fibers that have carbon in excess of 99%. Large varieties of fibers called precursors are used to produce carbon fibers of different morphologies and different specific characteristics. The most prevalent precursors are polyacrylonitrile (PAN), cellulosic fibers (viscose rayon, cotton), petroleum or coal tar pitch and certain phenolic fibers.

Carbon fibers are manufactured by the controlled pyrolysis of organic precursors in fibrous form. It is a heat treatment of the precursor that removes the oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen to form carbon fibers. It is well established in carbon fiber literature that the mechanical properties of the carbon fibers are improved by increasing the crystallinity and orientation, and by reducing defects in the fiber. The best way to achieve this is to start with a highly oriented precursor and then maintain the initial high orientation during the process of stabilization and carbonization through tension [18-19].

2.4.2.1. Carbon fibers from polyacrylonitrile (PAN)

There are three successive stages in the conversion of PAN precursor into high-performance carbon fibers. Oxidative stabilization: The polyacrylonitrile precursor is first stretched and simultaneously oxidized in a temperature range of 200-300 °C. This treatment converts thermoplastic PAN to a non-plastic cyclic or ladder compound. Carbonization: After oxidation, the fibers are carbonized at about 1000 °C without tension in an inert atmosphere (normally nitrogen) for a few hours. During this process the non-carbon elements are removed as volatiles to give carbon fibers with a yield of about 50% of the mass of the original PAN. Graphitization: Depending on the type of fiber required, the fibers are treated at temperatures between 1500-3000 °C, which improves the ordering, and orientation of the crystallites in the direction of the fiber axis.

2.4.2.2. Carbon fibers from rayon

a- The conversion of rayon fibers into carbon fibers is three phase process

Stabilization: Stabilization is an oxidative process that occurs through steps. In the first step, between 25-150 °C, there is physical desorption of water. The next step is a dehydration of the cellulosic unit between 150-240 °C. Finally, thermal cleavage of the cyclosidic linkage and scission of ether bonds and some C-C bonds via free radical reaction (240-400 °C) and, thereafter, aromatization takes place.

Carbonization: Between 400 and 700 °C, the carbonaceous residue is converted into a graphite-like layer.

Graphitization: Graphitization is carried out under strain at 700-2700 °C to obtain high modulus fiber through longitudinal orientation of the planes.

b- The carbon fiber fabrication from pitch generally consists of the following four steps:

Pitch preparation: It is an adjustment in the molecular weight, viscosity, and crystal orientation for spinning and further heating.

Spinning and drawing: In this stage, pitch is converted into filaments, with some alignment in the crystallites to achieve the directional characteristics.

Stabilization: In this step, some kind of thermosetting to maintain the filament shape during pyrolysis. The stabilization temperature is between 250 and 400 °C.

Carbonization: The carbonization temperature is between 1000-1500 °C.

2.4.2.3. Carbon fibers in meltblown nonwovens

Carbon fibers made from the spinning of molten pitches are of interest because of the high carbon yield from the precursors and the relatively low cost of the starting materials. Stabilization in air and carbonization in nitrogen can follow the formation of ionic mobile app builder crack - Free Activators pitch webs. Processes have been developed with isotropic pitches and with anisotropic mesophase pitches. The mesophase pitch based and melt blown discontinuous carbon fibers have a peculiar structure. These fibers are characterized in that a large number of small domains, each domain having an average equivalent diameter from 0.03 mm to 1mm and a nearly unidirectional orientation of folded carbon layers, assemble to form a mosaic structure on the cross-section of the carbon fibers. The folded carbon layers of each domain are oriented at an angle to the direction of the folded carbon layers of the neighboring domains on the boundary [20].

2.4.2.4. Carbon fibers from isotropic pitch

The isotropic pitch or pitch-like material, i.e., molten polyvinyl chloride, is melt spun at high strain rates to align the molecules parallel to the fiber axis. The thermoplastic fiber is then rapidly cooled and carefully oxidized at a low temperature (<100 °C). The oxidation process is rather slow, to ensure stabilization of the fiber by cross-linking and rendering it infusible. However, upon carbonization, relaxation of the molecules takes place, producing fibers with no significant preferred orientation. This process is not industrially attractive due to the lengthy oxidation step, and only low-quality carbon fibers with no graphitization are produced. These are used as fillers with various plastics as thermal insulation materials [20].

2.4.2.5. Carbon fibers from anisotropic mesophase pitch

High molecular weight aromatic pitches, mainly anisotropic in nature, are referred to as mesophase pitches. The pitch precursor is thermally treated above 350°C to convert it to mesophase pitch, which contains both isotropic and anisotropic phases. Due to the shear stress occurring during spinning, the mesophase molecules orient parallel to the fiber axis. After spinning, the isotropic part of the pitch is made infusible by thermosetting in air at a temperature below it's softening point. The fiber is then carbonized at temperatures up to 1000 °C. The main advantage of this process is that no tension is required during the stabilization or the graphitization, unlike the case of rayon or PANs precursors [21].

2.4.2.6. Structure

The characterization of carbon fiber microstructure has been mainly been performed by x-ray scattering and electron microscopy techniques. In contrast to graphite, the structure of carbon fiber lacks any three dimensional order. In PAN-based fibers, the linear chain structure is transformed to a planar structure during oxidative stabilization and subsequent carbonization. Basal planes oriented along the fiber axis are formed during the carbonization stage. Wide-angle x-ray data suggests an increase in stack height and orientation of basal planes with an increase in heat treatment temperature. A difference in structure between the sheath and the core was noticed in a fully stabilized fiber. The skin has a high axial preferred orientation and thick crystallite stacking. However, the core shows a lower preferred orientation and a lower crystallite height [22].

2.4.2.7. Properties

In general, it is seen that the higher the tensile strength of the precursor the higher is the tenacity of the carbon fiber. Tensile strength and modulus are significantly improved by carbonization under strain when moderate stabilization is used. X-ray and electron diffraction studies have shown that in high modulus type fibers, the crystallites are arranged around the longitudinal axis of the fiber with layer planes highly oriented parallel to the axis. Overall, the strength of a carbon fiber depends on the type of precursor, the processing conditions, heat treatment temperature and the presence of flaws and defects. With PAN based carbon fibers, the strength increases up to a maximum of 1300 ºC and then gradually decreases. The modulus has been shown to increase with increasing temperature. PAN based fibers typically buckle on compression and form kink bands at the innermost surface of the fiber. However, similar high modulus type pitch-based fibers deform by a shear mechanism with kink bands formed at 45° to the fiber axis. Carbon fibers are very brittle. The layers in the fibers are formed by strong covalent bonds. The sheet-like aggregations allow easy crack propagation. On bending, the fiber fails at very low strain [23].

2.4.2.8. Applications

The two main applications of carbon fibers are in specialized technology, which includes aerospace and nuclear engineering, and in general engineering and transportation, which includes engineering components such as bearings, gears, cams, fan blades and automobile bodies. Recently, some new applications of carbon fibers have been found. Others include: decoration in automotive, marine, general aviation interiors, general entertainment and musical instruments and after-market transportation products. Conductivity in electronics technology provides additional new application [24].

The production of highly effective fibrous carbon adsorbents with low diameter, excluding or minimizing external and intra-diffusion resistance to mass transfer, and therefore, exhibiting high sorption rates is a challenging task. These carbon adsorbents can be converted into a wide variety of textile forms and nonwoven materials. Cheaper and newer versions of carbon fibers are being produced from new raw materials. Newer applications are also being developed for protective clothing (used in various chemical industries for work in extremely hostile environments), electromagnetic shielding and various other novel applications. The use of carbon fibers in Nonwovens is in a new possible application for high temperature fire-retardant insulation (eg: furnace material) [25].

2.5. Aramid-definition

Aliphatic polyamides are macromolecules whose structural units are characteristically interlinked by the amide linkage -NH-CO. The nature of the structural unit constitutes a basis for classification. Aliphatic polyamides with structural units derived predominantly from aliphatic monomers are members of the generic class of nylons, whereas aromatic polyamides in which at least 85% of the amide linkages are directly adjacent to aromatic structures have been designated aramids. The U.S. Federal Trade Commission defines nylon fibers as ‘‘a manufactured fiber in which the fiber forming substance is a long chain synthetic polyamide in which less than 85% of the amide linkages (-CO-NH-) are attached directly to two aliphatic groups.’’ Polyamides that contain recurring amide groups as integral parts of the polymer backbone have been classified as condensation polymers regardless of the principal mechanisms entailed in the polymerization process. Though many reactions suitable for polyamide formation are known, commercially important nylons are obtained by processes related to either of two basic approaches: one entails the polycondensation of difunctional monomers utilizing either amino acids or stoichiometric pairs of dicarboxylic acids and diamines, and the other entails the ring-opening polymerization of lactams. The polyamides formed from diacids and diamines are generally described to be of the AABB format, whereas those derived from either amino acids or lactams are of the AB format.

The structure of polyamide fibers is defined by both chemical and physical parameters. The chemical parameters are related mainly to the constitution of the polyamide molecule and are concerned primarily with its monomeric units, end-groups, and molecular weight. The physical parameters are related essentially to chain conformation, orientation of both polymer molecule segments and aggregates, and to crystallinity [26]. This characteristic for single-chain aliphatic polyamides is determined by the structure of the monomeric units and the nature of end groups of the polymer molecules. The most important structural parameter of the noncrystalline (amorphous) phase is the glass transition temperature (Tg) since it has a considerable effect on both processing and properties of the polyamide fibers. It relates to a type of a glass–rubber transition and is defined as the temperature, or temperature range, at which mobility of chain segments or structural units commences. Thus it is a function of the chemical structure; in case of the linear aliphatic polyamides, it is a function of the number of CH2 units (mean spacing) between the amide groups. As the number of CH2 unit’s increases, Tg decreases. Although Tg is further affected by the nature of the crystalline phase, orientation, and molecular weight, it is associated only with what may be considered the amorphous phase.

Any process affecting this phase exerts a corresponding effect on the glass transition temperature. This is particularly evident in its response to the concentration of water absorbed in polyamides. An increase in water content results in a steady decrease of Tg toward a limiting value. This phenomenon may be explained by a mechanism that entails successive replacement of intercatenary hydrogen bonds in the amorphous phase with water. It may involve a sorption mechanism, according to which 3 mol of water interact with two neighboring amide groups [27].

The properties of aromatic polyamides differ significantly from those of their aliphatic counterparts. This led the U.S. Federal Trade Commission to adopt the term ‘‘aramid’’ to designate fibers of the aromatic polyamide type in which at least 85% of the amide linkages are attached directly to two aromatic rings.

The search for materials with very good thermal properties was the original reason for research into aromatic polyamides. Bond dissociation energies of C-C and C-N bonds in aromatic polyamides are ~20% higher than those in aliphatic polyamides. This is the reason why the decomposition temperature of poly(m-phenylene isophthalamide) MPDI exceeds 450 ºC. Conjugation between the amide group and the aromatic ring in poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide) “PPTA” increases chain rigidity as well as the decomposition temperature, which exceeds 550 ºC.

Obviously, hydrogen bonding and chain rigidity of these polymers translates to very high glass transition temperatures. Using low-molecular-weight polymers, Aharoni [19] measured glass transition temperatures of 272 ºC for MPDI and over 295 ºC for PPTA (which in this case had low crystallinity). Others have reported values as high as 4928 ºC. In most cases the measurement of Tg is difficult because PPTA is essentially 100% crystalline. As one would expect, these values are not strongly dependent on the molecular weight of the polymer above a DP of ~10 [22].

The same structural characteristics that are responsible for the excellent thermal properties of these materials are responsible for their limited solubility as well as good chemical resistance. PPTA is soluble only in strong acids like H2SO4, HF, and methanesulfonic acid. Preparation of this polymer via solution polymerization in amide solvents is accompanied by polymer precipitation. As expected, based on its structure, MPDI is easier to solubilize then PPTA. It is soluble in neat amide solvents like N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and dimethylacetamide (DMAc), but adding salts like CaCl2 or LiCl significantly enhances its solubility. The significant rigidity of the PPTA chain (as discussed above) leads to the formation of anisotropic solutions when the solvent is good enough to reach critical minimum solids concentration. The implications of this are discussed in greater detail later in this chapter. It is well known that chemical properties differ significantly between crystalline and noncrystalline materials of the same composition. In general, aramids have very good chemical resistance. Obviously, the amide bond is subject to a hydrolytic attack by acids and bases. Exposure to very strong oxidizing agents results in a significant strength loss of these fibers. In addition to crystallinity, structure consolidation affects the rate of degradation of these materials. The hydrophilicity of the amide group leads to a significant absorption of water by all aramids. While the chemistry is the driving factor, fiber structure also plays a very important role; for example, Kevlar 29 absorbs ~7% water, Kevlar 49~4%, and Kevlar 149 only 1%. Fukuda explored the relationship between fiber crystallinity and equilibrium moisture in great detail. Because of their aromatic character, aramids absorb UV light, which results in an oxidative color change. Substantial exposure can lead to the loss of yarn tensile properties. UV absorption by p-aramids is more pronounced than with m-aramids. In this case a self-screening phenomenon is observed, which makes thin structures more susceptible to degradation than thick ones. Very frequently p-aramids are covered with another material in the final application to protect them. The high degree of aromaticity of these materials also provides significant flame resistance. All commercial aramids have a limited oxygen index in the range of 28-32%, which compares with ~20% for aliphatic polyamides.

Typical properties of commercial aramid fibers are while yarns of m-aramids have tensile properties that are no greater than those of aliphatic polyamides, they do retain useful mechanical properties at significantly higher temperatures. The high glass transition temperature leads to low (less than 1%) shrinkage at temperatures below 250 ºC. In general, mechanical properties of m-aramid fibers are developed on drawing. This process produces fibers with a high degree of morphological homogeneity, which leads to very good fatigue properties. The mechanical properties of p-aramid fibers have been the subject of much study. This is because these fibers were the first examples of organic materials with a very high level of both strength and stiffness. These materials are practical confirmation that nearly perfect orientation and full chain extension are required to achieve mechanical properties approaching those predicted for chemical bonds. In general, the mechanical properties reflect a significant anisotropy of these fibers-covalent bonds in the direction of the fiber axis with hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces in the lateral direction [26].

Aramid-based reinforcement has been viewed as a more specialty product for applications requiring high modulus and where the potential for electrical conductivity would preclude the use of carbon; iPhone Backup Extractor Free Download example, aramid sheet is used for all tunnel repairs. Product forms include dry fabrics or unidirectional sheets as well as pre-cured strips or bars. Fabrics or sheets are applied to a concrete surface that has been smoothed (by grinding or blasting) and wetted with a resin (usually epoxy). The composite materials used for concrete infrastructure repair that was initiated in the mid 1980s. After air pockets are removed using rollers or flat, flexible squeegees, a second resin coat might be applied. Reinforcement of concrete structures is important in earthquake prone areas, although steel plate is the primary material used to reinforce and repair concrete structures, higher priced fiber-based sheet structures offer advantages for small sites where ease of handling and corrosion resistance are important. The high strength, modulus, and damage tolerance of aramid-reinforced sheets makes the fiber especially suitable for protecting structures prone to seismic activity. The use of aramid sheet also simplifies the application process. Sheets are light in weight and can be easily handled without heavy machinery and can be applied in confined working spaces. Sheets are ionic mobile app builder crack - Free Activators flexible, so surface smoothing and corner rounding of columns are less critical than for carbon fiber sheets [28].

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3. All process description

FRP involves two distinct processes, the first is the process whereby the fibrous material is manufactured and formed, and the second is the process whereby fibrous materials are bonded with the matrix during the molding process.

3.1. Fibre process

3.1.1. The manufacture of fibre fabric

Reinforcing Fibre is manufactured in both two dimensional and three dimensional orientations

  1. Two Dimensional Fibre Reinforced Polymer are characterized by a laminated structure in which the fibres are only aligned along the plane in x-direction and y-direction of the material. This means that no fibres are aligned in the through thickness or the z-direction, this lack of alignment in the through thickness can create a disadvantage in cost and processing. Costs and labour increase because conventional processing techniques used to fabricate composites, such as wet hand lay-up, autoclave and resin transfer molding, require a high amount of skilled labour to cut, stack and consolidate into a preformed component.

  2. Three-dimensional Fibre Reinforced Polymer composites are materials with three dimensional fibre structures that incorporate fibres in the x-direction, y-direction and z-direction. The development of three-dimensional orientations arose from industry's need to reduce fabrication costs, to increase through-thickness mechanical properties, and to improve impact damage tolerance; all were problems associated with two dimensional fibre reinforced polymers [28].

3.1.2. The manufacture of fibre preforms

Fibre preforms are how the fibres are manufactured before being bonded to the matrix. Fibre preforms are often manufactured in sheets, continuous mats, or as continuous filaments for spray applications. The four major ways to manufacture the fibre preform is though the textile processing techniques of Weaving, knitting, braiding and stitching.

  1. Weaving can be done in a conventional manner to produce two-dimensional fibres as well in a multilayer weaving that can create three-dimensional fibres. However, multilayer weaving is required to have multiple layers of warp yarns to create fibres in the z- direction creating a few disadvantages in manufacturing, namely the time to set up all the warp yarns on the loom. Therefore most multilayer weaving is currently used to produce relatively narrow width products or high value products where the cost of the preform production is acceptable. Another Fibre-reinforced plastic 3D one of the main problems facing the use of multilayer woven fabrics is the difficulty in producing a fabric that contains fibres oriented with angles other than 0º and 90º to each other respectively.

  2. The second major way of manufacturing fibre preforms is braiding. Braiding is suited to the manufacture of narrow width flat or tubular fabric and is not as capable as weaving in the production of large volumes of wide fabrics. Braiding is done over top of mandrels that vary in cross-sectional shape or dimension along their length. Braiding is limited to objects about a brick in size. Unlike the standard weaving process, braiding can produce fabric that contains fibres at 45 degrees angles to one another. Braiding three-dimensional fibres can be done using four steps, two-step or Multilayer Interlock Braiding. Four step or row and column braiding utilizes a flat bed containing rows and columns of yarn carriers that form the shape of the desired preform. Additional carriers are added to the outside of the array, the precise location and quantity of which depends upon the exact preform shape and structure required. There are four separate sequences of row and column motion, which act to interlock the yarns and produce the braided preform. The yarns are mechanically forced into the structure between each step to consolidate the structure in a similar process to the use of a reed in weaving.Two-step braiding is unlike the four step process because the two-step includes a large number of yarns fixed in the axial direction and a fewer number of braiding yarns. The process consists of two steps in which the braiding carriers move completely through the structure between the axial carriers. This relatively simple sequence of motions is capable of forming performs of essentially any shape, including circular and hollow shapes. Unlike the four steps process the two steps process does not require mechanical compaction the motions involved in the process allows the braid to be pulled tight by yarn tension alone. The last type of braiding is multi-layer interlocking braiding that consists of a number of standard circular braiders being joined together to form a cylindrical braiding frame. This frame has a number of parallel braiding tracks around the circumference of the cylinder but the mechanism allows the transfer of yarn carriers between adjacent tracks forming a multilayer braided fabric with yarns interlocking to adjacent layers.

The multilayer interlock braid differs from both the four step and two-step braids in that the interlocking yarns are primarily in the plane of the structure and thus do not significantly reduce the in-plane properties of the perform. The four step and two step processes produce a greater degree of interlinking as the braiding yarns travel through the thickness of the preform, but therefore contribute less to the in-plane performance of the preform. A disadvantage of the multilayer interlock equipment is that due to the conventional sinusoidal movement of the yarn carriers to form the preform, the equipment is not able to have the density of yarn carriers that is possible with the two step and four step machines.

  1. Knitting fibre preforms can be done with the traditional methods of Warp and [Weft] Knitting, and the fabric produced is often regarded by many as two-dimensional fabric, but machines with two or more needle beds are capable of producing multilayer fabrics with yams that traverse between the layers. Developments in electronic controls for needle selection and knit loop transfer and in the sophisticated mechanisms that allow specific areas of the fabric to be held and their movement controlled. This has allowed the fabric to form itself into the required three-dimensional perform shape with a minimum of material wastage.

  2. Stitching is arguably the simplest of the four main textile manufacturing techniques and one that can be performed with the smallest investment in specialized machinery. Basically the stitching process consists of inserting a needle, carrying the stitch thread, through a stack of fabric layers to form a 3D structure. The advantages of stitching are that it is possible to stitch both dry and prepreg fabric, although the tackiness of prepare makes the process difficult and generally creates more damage within the prepreg material than in the dry fabric. Stitching also utilizes the standard two-dimensional fabrics that are commonly in use within the composite industry therefore there is a sense of familiarity concerning the material systems. The use of standard fabric also allows a greater degree of flexibility in the fabric lay-up of the component than is possible with the other textile processes, which have restrictions on the fibre orientations that can be produced.

3.1.3. Molding processes

There are two distinct categories of molding processes using FRP plastics; this includes composite molding and wet molding. Composite molding uses Prepreg FRP, meaning the plastics are fibre reinforced before being put through further molding processes. Sheets of Prepreg FRP are heated or compressed in different ways to create geometric shapes. Wet molding combines fibre reinforcement and the matrix or resist during the molding process. The different forms of composite and wet molding, are listed below.

3.2. Composite molding

3.2.1. Bladder molding

Individual sheets of prepreg material are laid -up and placed in a female-style mould along with Filmora 6.8.2 Licensed email and Registration code balloon-like bladder. The mould is closed and placed in a heated press. Finally, the bladder is pressurized forcing the layers of material against the mould walls. The part is cured and removed from the hot mould. Bladder molding is a closed molding process with a relatively short cure cycle between 15 and 60 minutes making it ideal for making complex hollow geometric shapes at competitive costs.

3.2.2. Compression molding

A "preform" or "charge", of SMC, BMC or sometimes prepreg fabric, is placed into mould cavity. The mould is closed and the material is compacted & cured inside by pressure and heat. Compression molding offers excellent detailing for geometric shapes ranging from pattern and relief detailing to complex curves and creative forms, to precision engineering all within a maximum curing time of 20 minutes.

3.2.3. Autoclave − Vacuum bag

Individual sheets of prepreg material are laid-up and placed in an open mold. The material is covered with release film, bleeder/breather material and a vacuum bag. A vacuum is pulled on part and the entire mould is placed into an autoclave (heated pressure vessel). The part is cured with a continuous vacuum to extract entrapped gasses from laminate. This is a very common process in the aerospace industry because it affords precise control over the molding process due to a long slow cure cycle that is anywhere from one to two hours. This precise control creates the exact laminate geometric forms needed to ensure strength and safety in the aerospace industry, but it is also slow and lab our intensive, meaning costs often confine it to the aerospace industry.

3.2.4. Mandrel wrapping

Sheets of prepreg material are wrapped around a steel or aluminum mandrel. The prepreg material is compacted by nylon or polypropylene cello tape. Parts are typically batch cured by hanging in an oven. After cure the cello and mandrel are removed leaving a hollow carbon tube. This process creates strong and robust hollow carbon tubes.

3.2.5. Wet layup

Fibre reinforcing fabric is placed in an open mould and then saturated with a wet (resin) by pouring it over the fabric and working it into the fabric and mould. The mould is then left so that the resin will cure, usually at room temperature, though heat is sometimes used to ensure a proper curing process. Glass fibres are most commonly used for this process, the results are widely known as fibreglass, and are used to make common products like skis, canoes, kayaks and surf boards.

3.2.6. Chopper gun

Continuous strand of fibreglass are pushed through a hand-held gun that both chops the strands and combines them with a catalyzed resin such as polyester. The impregnated chopped glass is shot onto the mould surface in whatever thickness the design and human operator think is appropriate. This process is good for large production runs at economical cost, but produces geometric shapes with less strength than other molding processes and has poor dimensional tolerance.

3.2.7. Filament winding

Machines pull fibre bundles through a wet bath of resin and wound over a rotating steel mandrel in specific orientations Parts are cured either room temperature or elevated temperatures. Mandrel is extracted, leaving a final geometric shape but can be left in some cases.

3.2.8. Pultrusion

Fibre bundles and slit fabrics are pulled through a wet bath of resin and formed into the rough part shape. Saturated material is extruded from a heated closed die curing while being continuously pulled through die. Some of the end products of the pultrusion process are structural shapes, i.e. beam, angle, channel and flat sheet. These materials can be used to create all sorts of fibreglass structures such as ladders, platforms, handrail systems tank, pipe, and pump supports.

3.3. Resin infusion

Fabrics are placed into a mould which wet resin is then injected into. Resin is typically pressurized and forced into a cavity which is under vacuum in the RTM (Resin Transfer Molding) process. Resin is entirely pulled into cavity under vacuum in the VARTM (Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding) process. This molding process allows precise tolerances and detailed shaping but can sometimes fail to fully saturate the fabric leading to weak spots in the final shape.

3.3.1. Advantages and limitations

FRP allows the alignment of the glass fibres of thermoplastics to suit specific design programs. Specifying the orientation of reinforcing fibres can increase the strength and resistance to deformation of the polymer. Glass reinforced polymers are strongest and most resistive to deforming forces when the polymers fibres are parallel to the force being exerted, and are weakest when the fibres are perpendicular. Thus this ability is at once both an advantage and a limitation depending on the context of use. Weak spots of perpendicular fibres can be used for natural hinges and connections, but can also lead to material failure when production processes fail to properly orient the fibres parallel to expected forces. When forces are exerted perpendicular to the orientation of fibres the strength and elasticity of the polymer is less than the matrix alone. In cast resin components made of glass reinforced polymers such as UP and EP, the orientation of fibres can be oriented in two-dimensional and three-dimensional weaves. This means that when forces are possibly perpendicular to one orientation, they are parallel to another orientation; this eliminates the potential for weak spots in the polymer.

3.3.2. Failure modes

Structural failure can occur in FRP materials when:

  • Tensile forces stretch the matrix more than the fibres, causing the material to shear at the interface between matrix and fibres.

  • Tensile forces near the end of the fibres exceed the tolerances of the matrix, separating the fibres from the matrix.

  • Tensile forces can also exceed the tolerances of the fibres causing the fibres themselves to fracture leading to material failure [29].

3.3.3. Material requirements

The matrix must also meet certain requirements in order to first be suitable for the FRP process and ensure a successful reinforcement of it. The matrix must be able to properly saturate, and bond with the fibres within a suitable curing period. The matrix should preferably bond chemically with the fibre reinforcement for maximum adhesion. The matrix must also completely envelope the fibres to protect them from cuts and notches that would reduce their strength, and to transfer forces to the fibres. The fibres must also be kept separate from each other so that if failure occurs it is localized as much as possible, and if failure occurs the matrix must also debond from the fibre for similar reasons. Finally the matrix should be of a plastic that remains chemically and physically stable during and after reinforcement and molding processes. To be suitable for reinforcement material fibre additives must increase the tensile strength and modulus of elasticity of the matrix and meet the following conditions; fibres must exceed critical fibre content; the strength and rigidity of fibres itself must exceed the strength and rigidity of the matrix alone; and there must be optimum bonding between fibres and matrix.

3.4. Glass fibre material

FRPs use textile glass fibres; textile fibres are different from other forms of glass fibres used for insulating applications. Textile glass fibres begin as varying combinations of SiO2, Al2O3, B2O3, CaO, or MgO in powder form. These mixtures are then heated through a direct melt process to temperatures around 1300 degrees Celsius, after which dies are used to extrude filaments of glass fibre in diameter ranging from ionic mobile app builder crack - Free Activators to 17 μm. These filaments are then wound into larger threads and spun onto bobbins for transportation and further processing. Glass fibre is by far the most popular means to reinforce plastic and thus enjoys a wealth of production processes, some of which are applicable to aramid and carbon fibres as well owing to their shared fibrous qualities. Roving is a process where filaments are spun into larger diameter threads. These threads are then commonly used for woven reinforcing glass fabrics and mats, and in spray applications. Fibre fabrics are web-form fabric reinforcing material that has both warped and weft directions. Fibre mats are web-form non-woven mats of glass fibres. Mats are manufactured in cut dimensions with chopped fibres, or in continuous mats using continuous fibres. Chopped fibre glass is used in processes where lengths of glass threads are cut between 3 and 26 mm, threads are then used in plastics most commonly intended for moulding processes. Glass fibre short strands are short 0.2–0.3 mm strands of glass fibres that are used to reinforce thermoplastics most commonly for injection moulding.

3.5. Aramid fibre material process

Aramid fibres are most commonly known Kevlar, Nomex and Technora. Aramids are generally prepared by the reaction between an amine group and a carboxylic acid halide group (aramid); commonly this occurs when an aromatic polyamide is spun from a liquid concentration of sulfuric acid into a crystallized fibre. Fibres are then spun into larger threads in order to weave into large ropes or woven fabrics (Aramid) [29]. Aramid fibres are manufactured with varying grades to base on varying qualities for strength and rigidity, so that the material can be somewhat tailored to specific design needs concerns, such as cutting the tough material during manufacture.

3.6. FRP, applications

Fibre-reinforced plastics are best suited for any design program that demands weight savings, precision engineering, finite tolerances, and the simplification of parts in both production and operation. A molded polymer artifact is cheaper, faster, and easier to manufacture than cast aluminum or steel artifact, and maintains similar and sometimes better tolerances and material strengths. The Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution IV also used FRP for its spoiler material [30-32].

3.6.1. Carbon fibre reinforced polymers

Rudder of commercial airplane

  • Advantages over a traditional rudder made from sheet aluminum are:

  • 25% reduction in weight

  • 95% reduction in components by combining parts and forms into simpler molded parts.

  • Overall reduction in production and operational costs, economy of parts results in lower production costs and the weight savings create fuel savings that lower the operational costs of flying the airplane.

3.6.2. Structural applications of FRP

FRP can be applied to strengthen the beams, columns and slabs in buildings. It is possible to increase strength of these structural members even after these have been severely damaged due to loading conditions. For strengthening beams, two techniques are adopted. First one is to paste FRP plates to the bottom (generally the tension face) of a beam. This increases the strength of beam, deflection capacity of beam and stiffness (load required to make unit deflection). Alternatively, FRP strips can be pasted in 'U' shape around the sides and bottom of a beam, resulting in higher shear resistance. Columns in building can be wrapped with FRP for achieving higher strength. This is called wrapping of columns. The technique works by restraining the lateral expansion of the column. Slabs may be strengthened by pasting FRP strips at their bottom (tension face). This will result in better performance, since the tensile resistance of slabs is supplemented by the tensile strength of FRP. In the case of beams and slabs, the effectiveness of FRP strengthening depends on the performance of the resin chosen for bonding [32].

3.6.3. Glass fibre reinforced polymers

Engine intake manifolds are made from glass fibre reinforced PA 66.

  • Advantages this has over cast aluminum manifolds are:

  • Up to a 60% reduction in weight

  • Improved surface quality and aerodynamics

  • Reduction in components by combining parts and forms into simpler molded shapes. Automotive gas and clutch pedals made from glass fibre reinforced PA 66 (DWP 12-13)

  • Advantages over stamped aluminum are:

  • Pedals can be molded as single units combining both pedals and mechanical linkages simplifying the google pro earth and operation of the design.

  • Fibres can be oriented to reinforce against specific stresses, increasing the durability and safety.

3.6.4. Design considerations

FRP is used in designs that require a measure of strength or modulus of elasticity those non-reinforced plastics and other material choices are either ill suited for mechanically or economically. This means that the primary design consideration for using FRP is to ensure that the material is used economically and in a manner that takes advantage of its structural enhancements specifically. This is however not always the case, the orientation of fibres also creates a material weakness perpendicular to the fibres. Thus the use of fibre reinforcement and their orientation affects the strength, rigidity, and elasticity of a final form and hence the operation of the final product itself. Orienting the direction of fibres either, unidirectional, 2-dimensionally, or 3-dimensionally during production affects the degree of strength, flexibility, and elasticity of the final product. Fibres oriented in the direction of forces display greater resistance to distortion from these forces and vice versa, thus areas of a product that must withstand forces will be reinforced with fibres in the same direction, and areas that require flexibility, such as natural hinges, will use fibres in a perpendicular direction to forces. Using more dimensions avoids this either or scenario and creates objects that seek to avoid any specific weak points due to the unidirectional orientation of fibres. The properties of strength, flexibility and elasticity can also be magnified or diminished through the geometric shape and design of the final product. These include such design consideration such as ensuring proper wall thickness and creating multifunctional geometric shapes that can be molding as single pieces, creating shapes that have more material and structural integrity by reducing joints, connections, and hardware [30].

3.6.5. Disposal and recycling concerns

As a subset of plastic FR plastics are liable to a number of the issues and concerns in plastic waste disposal and recycling. Plastics pose a particular challenge in recycling processes because they are derived from polymers and monomers that often cannot be separated and returned to their virgin states, for this reason not all plastics can be recycled for re-use, in fact some estimates claim only 20% to 30% of plastics can be material recycled at all. Fibre reinforced plastics and their matrices share these disposal and environmental concerns. In addition to these concerns, the fact that the fibres themselves are difficult to remove from the matrix and preserve for re-use means FRP amplify these challenges. FRP are inherently difficult to separate into base a material that is into fibre and matrix, and the Fibre-reinforced plastic matrix into separate usable plastic, polymers, and monomers. These are all concerns for environmentally informed design today, but plastics often offer savings in energy and economic savings in comparison to other materials, also with the advent of new more environmentally friendly matrices such as bioplastics and UV-degradable plastics, FRP will similarly gain environmental sensitivity [29].

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4. Mechanical properties measurements

4.1. Strength

Strength is a mechanical property that you should be able to relate to, but you might not know exactly what we mean by the word "strong" when are talking about polymers. First, there is more than one kind of strength. There is tensile strength. A polymer has tensile strength if it is strong when one pulls on it. Tensile strength is important for a material that is going to be stretched or under tension. Fibers need good tensile strength.

Then there is compressional strength. A polymer sample has compressional strength if it is strong when one tries to compress it. Concrete is an example of a material with good compressional strength. Anything that has to support weight from underneath has to have good compressional strength [32]. There is also flexural strength. A polymer sample has flexural strength if it is strong when one tries to bend it.

There are other kinds of strength we could talk about. A sample torsional strength if it is strong when one tries to twist it. Then there is impact strength. A sample has impact strength if it is strong when one hits it sharply and suddenly, as with a hammer.

To measure the tensile strength of a polymer sample, we take the sample and we try to stretch. We usually stretch it with a machine for these studies. This machine simply has clamps on each end 3d architect home designer pro the sample, then, when you turn it on it graphpad prism torrent the sample. While it is stretching the sample, it measures the amount of force (F) that it is exerting. When we know the force being exerted on the sample, we then divide that number by the cross-sectional area (A) of our sample. The answer is the stress that our sample is experiencing. Then, using our machine, we continue to increase the amount of force, and stress naturally, on the sample until it breaks. The stress needed to break the sample is the tensile strength of the material. Likewise, one can imagine similar tests for compressional or flexural strength. In all cases, the strength is the stress needed to break the sample. Since tensile stress is the force placed on the sample divided by the cross-sectional area of the sample, tensile stress, and tensile strength as well, are both measured in units of force divided by units of area, usually N/cm2. Stress and strength can also be measured in megapascals (MPa) or gigapascals (GPa). It is easy to convert between the different units, because 1 MPa = 100 N/cm2, 1 GPa = 100,000 N/cm2, and of course 1 GPa = 1,000 MPa. Other times, stress and strength are measured in the old English units of pounds per square inch, or psi. If you ever have to convert psi to N/cm2, the conversion factor is 1 N/cm2 = 1.45 psi.

4.2. Elongation

But there is more to understanding a polymer's mechanical properties than merely knowing how strong it is. All strength tells us is how much stress is needed to break something. It doesn't tell us anything about what happens to our sample while we're trying to break it. That's where it pays to study the elongation behavior of a polymer sample. Elongation is a type of deformation. Deformation is simply a change in shape that anything undergoes under stress. When we're talking about tensile stress, the sample deforms by stretching, becoming longer. We call this elongation, of course. Usually we talk about percent elongation, which is just the length the polymer sample is after it is stretched (L), divided by the original length of the sample (L0), and then multiplied by 100.

There are a number of things we measure related to elongation. Which is most important depends on the type of material one is studying. Two important things we measure are ultimate elongation and elastic elongation. Ultimate elongation is important for any kind of material. It is nothing more than the amount you can stretch the sample before it breaks. Elastic elongation is the percent elongation you can reach without permanently deforming your sample. That is, how much can you stretch it, and still have the sample snap back to its original length once you release the stress on it. This is important if your material is an elastomer. Elastomers have to be able to stretch a long distance and still bounce back. Most of them can stretch from 500 to 1000 % elongation and return to their original lengths without any trouble [32].

4.3. Modulus

In the elastomers are need show the high elastic elongation. But for some other types of materials, like plastics, it usually they not stretch or deform so easily. If we want to know how well a material resists deformation, we measure something called modulus. To measure tensile modulus, we do the same thing as we did to measure strength and ultimate elongation. This time we measure the stress we're exerting on the material, just like we did when we were measuring tensile strength. First, is slowly increasing the amount of stress, and then we measure the elongation the sample undergoes at each stress level. We keep doing this until the sample breaks. This plot is called a stress-strain curve. (Strain is any kind of deformation, including elongation. Elongation is the word we use if we're talking specifically about tensile strain.) The height of the curve when the sample breaks is the tensile strength, of course, and the tensile modulus is the slope of this plot. If the slope is steep, the sample has a high tensile modulus, which means it resists deformation. If the slope is gentle, then the sample has a low tensile modulus, which means it is easily deformed. There are times when the stress-strain curve is not nice and straight, like we saw above. The slope isn't constant as stress increases. The slope, that is the modulus, is changing with stress. In a case like this we usually, the initial slope change as the modulus change [32].

In general, fibers have the highest tensile moduli, and elastomers have the lowest, and plastics have tensile moduli somewhere in between fibers and elastomers.

Modulus is measured by calculating stress and dividing by elongation, and would be measured in units of stress divided by units of elongation. But since elongation is dimensionless, it has no units by which we can divide. So modulus is expressed in the same units as strength, such as N/cm2.

Intrinsic deformation is defined as the materials’ true stress-strain response during homogeneous deformation. Since generally strain localization phenomena occur (like necking, shear banding, crazing and cracking), the measurement of rekordbox 6.5.3 Crack With License Key Free Download 2021 intrinsic materials’ response requires a special experimental set-up, such as a video-controlled tensile or a uniaxial compression test. Although details of the intrinsic response differ per material, a general representation of the intrinsic deformation of polymers can be recognized [33], see Figure 1.

4.4. Toughness

That plot of stress versus strain can give us another very valuable piece of information. If one measures the area underneath the stress-strain curve (figure 2), colored red in the graph below, the number you get is something we call toughness.

Toughness is really a measure of the energy a sample can absorb before it breaks. Think about it, if the height of the triangle in the plot is strength, and the base of the triangle is strain, then the area is proportional to strength strain. Since strength is proportional to the force needed to break the sample, and strain is measured in units of distance (the distance the sample is stretched), then strength strain is proportional is force times distance, and as we remember from physics, force times distance is energy.

From a physics point of view the strength, is that strength tells how much force is needed to break a sample, and toughness tells how much energy is needed to break a sample. But that does not really tell you what the practical differences are. What is important knows that just because a material is strong, it isn't necessarily going to be tough as well [34-35].

The gray plot is the stress-strain curve for a sample that is strong, but not tough (figure 3). As you can see, it takes a lot of force to break this sample. Likewise, this sample ca not stretch very much before it breaks. A material like this which is strong, but can not deform very much before it breaks is called brittle [36].

The gray plot is a stress-strain curve for a sample that is both strong and tough. This material is not as strong as the sample in the gray plot, but the area underneath its curve is a lot larger than the area under the gray sample's curve. So it can absorb a lot more energy than the gray-black sample plot.

The gray-black sample elongates a lot more before breaking than the gray sample does. You see, deformation allows a sample to dissipate energy. If a sample can't deform, the energy won't be dissipated, and will cause the sample to break [37].

In real life, we usually want materials to be tough and strong. Ideally, it would be nice to have a material that would not bend or break, but this is the real world. The gray-black sample has a much higher modulus than the red sample. While it is good for materials in a lot of applications to have high moduli and resist deformation, in the real world it is a lot better for a material to bend than to break, and if bending, stretching or deforming in some other way prevents the material from breaking, all the better. So when we design new polymers, or new composites, we often sacrifice a little bit of strength in order to make the material tougher.

4.5. Mechanical properties of real polymers

The rigid plastics such as polystyrene, poly(methyl methacrylate or polycarbonate can withstand a good deal of stress, but they won't withstand much elongation before breaking. There is not much area under the stress-strain curve at all. So we say that materials like this are strong, but not very tough. Also, the slope of the plot is very steep, which means that it takes a lot of force to deform a rigid plastic. So it is easy to see that rigid plastics have high moduli. In short, rigid plastics tend to be strong, at resist deformation, but they tend not to be very tough, that is, they are brittle.

Flexible plastics like polyethylene and polypropylene are different from rigid plastics in that they don not resist deformation as well, but they tend not to break. The ability to deform is what keeps them from breaking. Initial modulus is high, that is it will resist deformation for awhile, but if enough stress is put on a flexible plastic, it will eventually deform. If you try to stretch it a plastic bag, it will be very hard at first, but once you have stretched it far enough it will give way and stretch easily. The bottom line is that flexible plastics may not be as strong as rigid ones, but they are a lot tougher.

It is possible to alter the stress-strain behavior of a plastic with additives called plasticizers. A plasticizer is a small molecule that makes plastics more flexible. For example, without plasticizers, poly(vinyl chloride), or PVC for short, is a rigid plastic. Rigid unplasticized PVC is used for water pipes. But with plasticizers, PVC can be made flexible enough to use to make things like hoses.

Fibers like KevlarTM, carbon fiber and nylon tend to have stress-strain curves like the aqua-colored plot in the graph above. Like the rigid plastics, they are more strong than tough, and do not deform very much under tensile stress. But when strength is what you need, fibers have plenty of it. They are much stronger than plastics, even the rigid ones, and some polymeric fibers, like KevlarTM, carbon fiber and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene have better tensile strength than steel.

Elastomers like polyisoprene, polybutadiene and polyisobutylene have completely different mechanical behavior from the other types of materials. Take a look at the pink plot in the graph above. Elastomers have very low moduli. You can see this from the very gentle slope of the pink plot, but you probably knew this already. You already knew that it is easy to stretch or bend a piece of rubber [34]. If elastomers did not have low moduli, they would not be very good elastomers.

But it takes more than just low modulus to make a polymer an elastomer. Being easily stretched is not much use unless the material can bounce back to its original size and shape once the stress is released. Rubber bands would be useless if they just stretched and did not bounce back. Of course, elastomers do bounce back, and that is what makes them so amazing. They have not just high elongation, but high reversible elongation.

4.6. Tensile properties

The discussion of which types of polymers have which mechanical properties has focused mostly on tensile properties. When we look at other properties, like compressional properties or flexural properties things can be completely different. For example, fibers have very high tensile strength and good flexural strength as well, but they usually have terrible compressional strength. They also only have good tensile strength in the direction of the fibers.

Some polymers are tough, while others are strong, and how one often has to make trade-offs when designing new materials; the design may have to sacrifice strength for toughness, but sometimes we can combine two polymers with different properties to get a new material with some of the properties of both. There are three main ways of doing this, and they are copolymerization, blending, and making composite materials.

The copolymer that combines the properties of two materials is spandex. It is a copolymer containing blocks of elastomeric polyoxyethylene and blocks of a rigid fiber-forming polyurethane. The result is a fiber that stretches. Spandex is used to make stretchy clothing like bicycle pants.

High-impact polystyrene, or HIPS for short, is an immiscible blend that combines the properties of two polymers, styrene and polybutadiene. Polystyrene is a rigid plastic. When mixed with polybutadiene, an elastomer, it forms a phase-separated mixture which has the strength of polystyrene along with toughness supplied by the polybutadiene. For this reason, HIPS is far less brittle than regular polystyrene [38].

In the case of a composite material, we are usually using a fiber to reinforce a thermoset. Thermosets are crosslinked materials whose stress-strain behavior is often similar to plastics. The fiber increases the tensile strength of the composite, while the thermoset gives it compressional strength and toughness.

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5. Conclusions

This brief review of FRP has summarized the very broad range of unusual functionalities that these products bring (Polymers, Aramids, Composites, Carbon FRP, and Glass-FRP). While the chemistry plays an important role in defining the scope of applications for which these materials are suited, it is equally important that the final parts are designed to maximize the value of the inherent properties of these materials. Clearly exemplify the constant trade-off between functionality and processability that is an ongoing challenge with these advanced materials. The functionality that allows these materials to perform under extreme conditions has to be balanced against processability that allows them to be economically shaped into useful forms. The ability of a polymer material to deform is determined by the mobility of its molecules, characterized by specific molecular motions and relaxation mechanisms, which are accelerated by temperature and stress. Since these relaxation mechanisms are material specific and depend on the molecular structure, they are used here to establish the desired link with the intrinsic deformation behavior.

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Acknowledgement

The author would like to offer a special thanks to Universidad Nacional de San Luis, to Instituto de Física Aplicada, and to Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas for being generously support used in this research works.

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.NET framework Interview Questions Web Development

Beginner

It is a platform which is developed by Microsoft for the software development. In the current scenario, the version used by the programmer is 4.7.1.

It is very effective when we want to create - Form-based and Web-based applications. Web services using the development tool. Net framework.

It is multilingual in terms of a programming language. It uses C# or Visual Basic to develop the application, in this user can make its own choice by choosing its own language to develop the application

.Net Framework Architecture :

1. Language :

  • WinForms – This is used for developing Windows Forms applications, which runs on an end user machine. Example: Notepad.
  • ASP.Net – This is used for developing web applications which runs on browsers such as Internet Explorer, Chrome or Firefox
  • ADO.Net – This is used to develop applications that interact with Databases such as Oracle or Microsoft SQL Server

2. Class Library: .Net Framework included a number of class libraries which contain the method and function which helps in handling the file level operation. For example, a class library that has methods to handle all file-level operations like a method which can be used to read the text from a file

3. Common Language Runtime: Common Language Infrastructure has the following key features:

  • Exception Handling: Exceptions are errors which occur when the application is executed.like if you are opening the file from the local which is not present at the local then it will give an exception
  • Garbage Collection: when we wanted to remove the unwanted resources from the code which is no longer in use can be done by the garbage collector.

Like as the database connection in the application which is no longer in use when compilation stops

1. Common Language Runtime. It works as an interface between an Operating Systems and the applications which are developed using the .NET framework. The main objective of CLR is to execute the program by converting the managed code to native code. CLR 's Just In Time (JIT) compilation converts Intermediate Language (MSIL) to native code at application run time.

When .Net application is executed, then the control goes to Operating System, which creates a process to load CLR

2. CLR services

  • Assembly Resolver
  • Assembly Loader
  • Type Checker
  • COM marshaller
  • Debug Manager
  • Thread Support
  • IL ionic mobile app builder crack - Free Activators Native compiler
  • Exception Manager
  • Garbage Collector

3. Assembly Resolve

It will send the request to the assembly loader by identifying assembly whether it is private or shared assembly.

4. Assembly Loader

According to the assembly resolver instruction, the assembly loader loads the instruction into the application.

5. Type Checker

To provide the safety checker helps in verifying the types which are used in the application with CTS or CLS

6. COM marshaller

It helps in getting communicating with the COM components which supports the COM interoperability.

7. Debug Manager

Using this we can check the code by line by line according to that we can make the changes in the code without terminating the application execution.

8. Thread Support

It manages more than one execution path in the application process, this provides multithreading support.

9. IL to Native compiler

Just In Time (JIT) compiler is used to convert the IL code to native code.

10. Exception Manager

It will handle exceptions thrown by application by executing catch block provided by exception, if there is no catch block, it will terminate the application.

11. Garbage Collector

when we wanted to remove the unwanted resources from the code which is no longer in use can be done by the garbage collector.

Like as the database connection in the application which is no longer in use when compilation stops.

CLS stands for Common Language Specification as the name suggests it set of certain feature which is very helpful for library and compiler writers if any other language that supports CLS can be used fully in each other's language, thus we can say that CLS is a subset of the common type system.

It is actually a set of restrictions on the CTS. It not only defines the types allowed in external calls, but also the rules for using them, depending on the goal of the user.

CLS is basically a subset of the entire set of features supported by CLR. With CLS, we can call virtual methods or can overload methods and not include things such as unsigned types.

It defines a common level of language functionality. CLR is the set of rules that a language compiler must follow while creating a .NET application at run in CLR. Anyone who wants to write a .NET·-compliant compiler needs simply to adhere to these rules and that's it.CLS is a set of rules through which we can exchange information over a single platform. The beauty of this is that the restriction to use features only applies to public and protected members of classes public classes. Within the private methods of your classes, any non-CLS code can be written, because the code in other assemblies cannot access this part of your code

The Common Type System defines how types are declared, used, and managed in the common language runtime, and is also an important part of the runtime's support for cross-language integration.

Here we have several languages and each and every language has its own data type and 1 language data type cannot be understandable by other languages.

CTS is a specification created by Microsoft and included in the European Computer Manufacturer‘s Association standard. It has certain standard features for implementing the .NET framework.

There are different types which CTS Support:

  1. Value Types: It directly contains the data and instances are either allocated on the stack or allocated inline in a structure. Value types can be built-in, user-defined or enumerations types.
  2. Reference Types: Value’s memory address reference are stored and are allocated on the heap. This can be any of the pointer types, interface types or self-describing types.

Operations on variables of a value type do not affect any other variable, whereas, operations on variables of a reference type can affect the same object referred to by another variable.

Started in the 2000s, ASP.net is a widely used web application framework which runs on Windows. It allows the development of applications, dynamic website, and web services. The biggest benefit of designing websites using ASP.net is the low cost and high speed. It also Another great benefit is its vast language support. ASP.net doesn’t need to be installed or configured separately unlike other platforms since it is built into the Windows environment.

Developers are widely using the framework since it allows building websites that are much faster and dynamic. The reason is the codes are compiled rather than interpreted. This means that the code is converted into object code which can be executed repeatedly by the .Net platform. The compilation process takes little time and happens only once unlike interpretation in which the code is read and interpreted every time it is being executed.

ASP.net is written in OOP languages, i.e., Object Oriented Programming languages, such as VB.net and C#. This is the reason it is fast, easy to use and totally reliable.

.Net is a framework that offers the most unique programming guidelines to develop not only web solutions but also a range of applications. It is compatible with many programming languages such as F#, C++, VB.net, and C#.  It has a very easy to use Integrated Development Environment (IDE) where you can write your code. It also supports editing of the code, designing interface, performance analysis, debugging and server management. Apps created using .Net can be run on Windows, LINUX, and Mac OS X.

It has a huge collection of prewritten codes which are known as predefined class libraries. It’s the work of other developers that can easily be used by adding those code into your programs. .Net libraries also have pre-written codes for database connectivity, database access, encryption and security.

.Net framework is widely used by big MNCs and IT companies for its varied advantages. Some loyalists are HCL, TCS, Dell, Epic Systems, Accenture, Quicken Loans, etc.

Both VB.net and C# use Object Oriented Programming Language and run on the .Net framework. These High-Level Languages are also referred to as Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) languages which means their code need not be translated while getting executed on a different platform.

Although they have many things in common, their main differences are as follows.

C#

  • C# comes with all the features of Python, Java, C++, and other languages since it is evolved from C.
  • To declare variables, the users must define their own variables or use the built-in types.
  • By using keywords in C#, unmanaged resources can be released.
  • Optional parameter is not supported in C#.
  • C# allows new implementation without overriding the base class member. The base class member can be used in a derived class just with the keyword ‘new.

VB.net

Источник: https://www.knowledgehut.com/interview-questions/dot-net-framework

App Builder Crackis a new and modern way to build mobile apps using. In this program, you will find many visual elements in addition to non-graphic remote controls, which can be included in the atmosphere of the application. It can be expanded in several ways. Now, You can easily download the latest version of App Builder 2021.59 Crack from Getproductkey.co Website.

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Introducing the MobileCaddy App Extensions

Written by Todd Halfpenny

Every project has time constraints, which sometimes means that nice features have to be dropped. This is why we’ve decided to make public our first set of App Extensions. These packages can be included in projects with a single command, freeing up your development time and enhancing your apps without limiting scope.

During our last couple of product updates I (excitedly) rabbited on about the development and GA release of our first three MobileCaddy App Extensions. The thinking behind releasing a suite of growing extension packages for our partners stemmed from some internal work that Diana, our latest developer intern, had undertaken.

Diana – a recent MSc graduate from the University of Kent – was tasked with updating one of our internal Salesforce mobile apps. During the scoping phase, we realised a lot of the new features would have also been an amazing fit in many of the apps our partners have built for their customers. Thus, the MobileCaddy App Extensions were born!

The first three extensions to go GA are:

McRest

An Angular service that acts as a wrapper to standard and custom Salesforce REST endpoints. The extension takes care of the authentication to Salesforce and includes calls for basic queries, SOQL calls, and file functionality.

Here’s an example to access a Salesforce Chatter feed:

 

varobj={

  method:'GET',

  contentType:'application/json',

  path:'/services/data/v36.0/chatter/feeds/news/me/feed-elements'

  };

McRestService.request(obj).then(function(result){

  .

  .

}

 

Global Search

This package contains an Angular service and controller, and an Ionic template that can SketchUp PRO 2018 Product key - Free Activators used to add a global search function to your app. It can be configured to handle queries across multiple mobilised tables and defined fields, and supports fuzzy search.

The extension also supports maintaining a configurable number of recent search items that were viewed.

global-search

Recent Items

An Angular service giving a lightweight implementation of calls to add, remove, and retrieve Salesforce objects from a local recent items listing.

Recent items are can be retrieved for a particular object, or for all entries.

 

// Get recent ‘Account’ object records.

let recentAccounts=RecentItemsService.getRecentItems('Account');

 

Tell me More

Our App Extensions are served as stand-alone packages and can be installed directly through npm. Each App Extension contains its own unit tests and is hooked up to TravisCI. When installed, they’ll copy their relevant code, and tests, into your project structure and will be included in your git repo by default. Being npm packages, they too can be easily upgraded when updates are made available.

Our library of extensions will expand as we identify more common feature sets, and we’ll be sure to open source them all. With that in mind, please feel free to raise PRs or issue tickets against them. And please let us know us on Twitter, or your private partner Slack channel (available to all our partners), if you have an idea for a new extension.

The aim of our extensions is a pure continuation of our belief that developers shouldn’t be re-inventing the wheel and having to re-write code that’s already proven. They’re also there to make sure rich features can be added to applications in scenarios where they’d normally be descoped due to project constraints.

The MobileCaddy App Extensions enable you to pull in common application functions and features with a single command. And with MobileCaddy actively maintaining the extensions, and the single-command update process, your apps stay up-to-date with limited effort. Check out our currently released Extensions at the links below, and start enriching your apps today.

Further Reading

Tags: Codeflow, Extension, javascript, Salesforce


London’s Calling 2017 Preview: Using browser tools for Salesforce app development

Written by Robbie Westacott

Europe’s largest community-led event for Salesforce professionals has come around once again, with London’s Calling 2017 taking place Friday, 10 February in… you guessed it, London.

rsz_lc2017-todd-halfeny-title-slide

With yet another fantastic panel of speakers, experts, and MVPs presenting at the event as always, recognised Salesforce consultant Phil Walton has released his 2017 list of 25 people to meet at London’s Calling. This year, MobileCaddy’s own Senior Mobile Technical Architect Todd Halfpenny has been named on that list, as he’s set to give a presentation which will provide the audience with tips and tricks for making the most of a browser’s developer tools. Continue reading…

Tags: App Development, Enterprise Applications, Enterprise Mobility, London's Calling 2017, Mobile App Development, Mobile Applications, Mobile Technology, MobileCaddy, Salesforce, Salesforce Mobile


Salesforce Mobile SDK 5 Opens New Doors for Developers

Written by Francis Hart

Coming back to work after the Christmas break is rarely easy, but thanks to a late December announcement from the Salesforce Mobile SDK team, there’s already been cause for excitement as we look ahead to the rest of 2017! That’s right, the Salesforce Mobile SDK 5 has now been released for iOS, Android, and Cordova.

Salesforce Mobile SDK 5 Icon

The Salesforce Mobile SDK allows developers to create both native and hybrid apps, for iOS and Android, to mobilise their Salesforce organisation. At MobileCaddy, we enhance and leverage the Salesforce Mobile SDK to help you rapidly build business critical mobile applications, and also provide you with an environment to support and manage your apps and users with ease. For more insight into how this works, read our case study on how we helped Diesel achieve mobile app success.

What are the Major Changes? 

  • iOS 10 and Xcode 8 support – Released back in September 2016, iOS 10 is Apple’s latest iOS version. With a reported adoption rate of 64% in November, keeping up with support of the latest OS version is very important
  • Android Nougat support – Android N (API level 25), was released back in August 2016 and is the latest version of the Android OS, bringing improved security and features
  • WKWebView replaces UIWebView –WKWebView was released in iOS 8 as a replacement for UIWebView, and brings with it more capable memory handling, reduced CPU load, and a whole lot more, all of which should add up to an improved user experience when using hybrid apps
  • New APIs that allow hybrid developers to create their own named databases
  • Cordova 4.3.0 and 6.1.0 support
  • Full App Transport Support (ATS) server compatibility – Apple requires that all network calls happen over HTTPS, a welcome boost to communication security
  • Dropped support for iOS 8 – As with many upgrades come dropped support for older versions. SDK 5 now supports iOS 9 at a minimum.

Along with various bug fixes and improvements, these changes to the Mobile SDK promise to help bring richer and better user experiences with Salesforce on mobile devices.

For the full set of release notes, and to download the Mobile SDK, take a look at the Salesforce Mobile SDK repo on Github for iOS, Android, or Cordova.

What do MobileCaddy Customers Need to Know?

Current MobileCaddy customers and users don’t need to do anything for the time being, your apps will still continue to work and function as you expect. But it’s a good idea if you’re a Salesforce mobile developer who utilises the Mobile SDK to check for any issues or broken functionality, by replacing your current SDK version with the new SDK 5, and also look at how you can leverage the new features and improvements that SDK 5 brings.

Remember to report any bugs or issues you find to the respective Salesforce Mobile SDK repo, or ask questions on the Google Plus page for the Salesforce Mobile SDK. You can also visit the Salesforce Mobile Technical Library for documentation, examples, and links to Trailhead modules.

Keep an eye out on our main MobileCaddy Blog for our next post on the new Mobile SDK 5, or visit our developer documentation to get started with the MobileCaddy platform to build smarter and better Salesforce mobile applications.

Tags: android, Cloud Technology, cordova, Custom App Development, Custom Mobile Apps, Enterprise Applications, Enterprise Mobile Apps, Enterprise Mobility, iOS, Mobile Applications, Mobile Strategy, Mobile Technology, MobileCaddy, Salesforce, Salesforce Mobile Apps, Salesforce Mobile SDK, Salesforce Platform


Desktop Hybrid Apps, Plugins, and IonicNative

Written by Todd Halfpenny

This is the first in a series of posts on just one tranche of the future for hybrid apps; the one that sees them continue to expand their reach on to PCs and Macs as ‘Desktop Hybrid’ apps.

Desktop Hybrid Apps

And since this is ‘post number one’ in the series, let us start with an introduction to desktop hybrid apps. As with mobile hybrid apps, those for the desktop can be initially understood as applications that are written with web technologies – HTML, CSS, and JavaScript – but they reside within a native container that exposes functionality and features of the host’s OS and hardware. This exposed layer includes support for aspects such as the following;

  • Installability – As with mobile hybrid, apps can be installed on to the host OS, just like any other app
  • OS UI Integration – Desktop app icons, tray icons, native menus, etc.
  • Hardware APIs – Filesystem access, Bluetooth, cameras, etc.

On mobile devices, this container layer is supplied through technologies such as Adobe Phonegap. With the ever-increasing oomph of mobile hardware, and the rise in adoption of frameworks like Ionic, mobile hybrid apps are no longer seen as the poor cousins of native apps – with many having millions of users¹, and winning both consumer² and enterprise³ awards, including Most Innovative Mobile Solution, Salesforce Partner Awards 2016, won by the TOPS app built using MobileCaddy.

Screenshots of Apps on mobile devices

As on mobile, desktop now has its own enablers for hybrid apps. These have their containers provided by projects including Electron and nw.js. These offerings utilise Node.js to build the bridge between the JavaScript world, and that of processes which have access to standard OS features, such as the file system. The hybrid apps can also be crunched up into natively installable (and upgradeable) forms, such as MSI for Windows and dmg for Mac OS.

atom

Despite its young age, there are already many popular apps written using Electron. Companies using Electron include Microsoft, GitHub (who developed Electron), Slack, and Automattic (WordPress.com).

Our own MobileCaddy desktop offering, for full offline-enabled, custom desktop apps for Salesforce, is currently in beta and is looking amazing. It appears the appetite for installable, offline-enabled desktop clients for Salesforce is strong; if you want to find out more, request an activation code using the form below.

Hybrid vs PWAs

Before sitting down to write this article, I was already debating with myself when one should choose to build a hybrid app, rather than build a Progressive Web App (PWA). As with the overall hybrid architecture, the movavi video editor 15.3 1 crack - Free Activators between mobile and desktop again come into play, but this time in reference to the pros and cons that arise when questioning which route to take.

With mobile, hybrid apps have access to a whole raft of native features through Cordova plugins, whereas PWAs are limited to those provided by WEB APIs. The functionality and features you get with PWAs are increasing though – you can have “add to home screen” support, push notifications, and plenty else aside.

The situation on the desktop is very similar. PWAs have the same kind of access, but hybrid apps still (for the time being at least) have greater reach into the native layer, and are treated more like first class citizens. Hybrid apps are able revo uninstaller pro crack 64 bit - Free Activators, for example, make use of native menus, tray icons, and store data outside of web storage.

I’m positive, and excited, to believe that the list of restrictions upon Web Apps will only continue to shrink, but in the meantime, let’s crack on.

One Codebase to Rule Them All

It is now only right to start thinking that, as app developers, it should be possible to have more or less a single codebase that supplies hybrid apps across the mobile and desktop landscape. This is something that the folks at Ionic have written about before, along with their intent to embrace PWAs.

In actual fact, we’re very close indeed to having a single codebase. It’s possible to write a JavaScript application that can be served as a PWA, enclosed in a Phonegap wrapper, or included in an Electron project. This means we can cover this vast landscape without the need to change barely any of the code that makes up the business logic or styling of your app. The vast majority of differences are more aligned to build tasks rather than application code.

So we’re there right? Well nearly, but not quite. Let’s say that you’re writing an app using Ionic – and so it’s an Angular SPA – and the app wants to create and access a private, persistent SQLite database… well you can do this on mobile using plugins such as Cordova SQLite Storage, and on desktop using the Node SQLite3 node package. To achieve the same functionality on mobile and desktop, we’ll be installing multiple plugins (though both eventually installed through npm, under the covers), and we’ll need to inject/reference them differently; we’re now left having to split our project into two.

For mobile we could use the IonicNative project (and let’s say our chosen plugin is supported by it), which means we’ll inject that single dependency, and use IonicNative to access the plugin, which in-turn bridges the JavaScript-to-Native divide and allows us to create and use our SQLite database. For desktop, it’s a little different. For our app to access the node package we could use Electron’s IPC to make a call from our renderer process (where our SPA is running) to the main process.

It can be seen that this difference in inclusion and access means that our codebase can’t be the same, or can it?

IonicNative to the Rescue

Here is where you’ll need to indulge me… what if IonicNative rocked up and said, “Hey, yeah we already love making life easier for devs, so ima gonna step up to the plate”. This is what I’m thinking;

Not only does IonicNative provide a wrapper to Cordova plugins for mobile, but it also has an awareness of the device it’s running on. And if it knows that it’s running inside an Electron environment, it makes an Electron IPC call instead of calling through to the Cordova plugin. And what if the Cordova plugin developers, as well as having branches of code for Android and iOS, also had a branch for Electron? This branch could support the IPC messages and interface to the native layer to fulfill the request from IonicNative.

Architecture diagram

With this architecture in place – or something similar – the application developer wouldn’t need to concern themselves with platform nuances, or managing multiple codebases. Their process could be something like;

 

ionic create MyIonicCode

ionic install ionic-native&&mySQLitePlugin

Write some code

ionic build--all-the-platforms

Feel smug

ionic deploy

Bask inthe glory…anddothisalot asyou’ve loads of spare time.

 

I recently managed to kidnap Alex Muramoto – Dev Advocate for Ionic – and chatted with him through some of the above in relation to bringing MobileCaddy apps to the desktop. I’m hugely grateful for the time he spared me (he was busy writing slides for the Ionic UK Meetup) and our conversation definitely helped me to flush through some of my thoughts.

I’d love to find some spare time to put together a proof-of-concept of this, perhaps using the SQLite example above. Perhaps I’d initially start with just implementing intelligence into IonicNative to make the Electron IPC if needed, and have my project package explicitly pull in either the Cordova plugin or Node package, depending on the build target.

Summary

I hope this post triggers some thoughts and discussion and perhaps leads to a more unified future for hybrid app, right across the device landscape.

For our part, at MobileCaddy, we know that the demand is there for driving towards a single codebase for Salesforce clients on both mobile and desktop, and we know that hybrid is the answer. As part of this we’ll be keen to share our ideas, and contribute to the great projects that help enable this.

Future posts in this ‘Desktop Hybrid’ series shall look further into the topics of Salesforce, Ionic, and further analysis into the differences between hybrid and PWAs.

Footnotes and Links

  1. Sworkit – Personalised Video Workouts
  2. Untappd – Time Magazine – 50 Best Apps of 2016
  3. TOPSs – Most Innovative Mobile Solution, Salesforce Partner Awards 2016

Tags: cordova, desktop, Electron, hybrid, Ionic, IonicNative, Salesforce


New Trailhead Badge – Trailhead Builder for ISVs?

Written by Todd Halfpenny

I’m pretty sure I’m not going to lose any friends, or make any waves, if I come out and say Trailhead is awesome… so…

TRAILHEAD IS AWESOME!
– Todd Halfpenny, Mobile Technical Architect, 2016

And as a dev – and all round tech lover – interested in Salesforce, I absolutely love the accessibility to information and training. And that’s not to mention the the broadness of topics it covers, from Apex development, to generating reports, to promoting diversity within your organisation.

And with my ISV Hat on?

Of course, it’s good for us, in terms of upskilling our employees and in general giving access to superb resources for all future staff. But, and I’m just going to come out and say it, I want more.

Imagine this, a Trailhead Builder for ISVs (in fact wouldn’t it be great to earn your Trailhead Builder for ISVs Trailhead badge).

Trailhead Builder for ISVs badge

That’s right, wouldn’t it be great if you were, say, employed at Ebsta and you had a tool to create a Getting Started with Ebsta trail and have trails such as Creating Your First Templates. How fantastic would it be if you could submit a config file that described a set of objects and properties to be evaluated, which could be used to do the brilliant automated marking that Trailhead does when it connects to your dev org?

I know for sure that our customers would appreciate some MobileCaddy badges, either for admins or devs. I can really see how valuable a badge for Defining Your First Fully Offline Mobile Table could be to our clients, be they part of an end user org or a MobileCaddy Partner. It’s all well and good having our own training resources, but if we could offer an interactive, online pool of information and tests, that aligned to those they are likely to be familiar with, then it can only be positive.

Such trails become even more important, I believe, when ISVs are faced with not just upgrading their apps to be Lightning-compliant, but also having to update their training materials, courses and documentation, too.

I can only imagine that such tools or processes exist internally, and hope that this post my tweak some interest and ignite some excitement over such feature set being available for ISVs.

Tags: ISV, Salesforce, Trailhead


London Salesforce Developer Meetup – July Review

Written by Todd Halfpenny

Last month’s London Salesforce DUG meetup was an odd one. It was a viewing party for the keynote(s) of the TrailheaDX – the annual Salesforce Developer conference. As interesting, and enjoyable, as it was, I was pleased this month’s agenda was back to the “couple of talks and then chat”.

But before all that, Keir Bowden kicked off with a short community message… “we want more speakers”. So if you have a passion for something that you think the Salesforce Developer community might like, or a demo of something cool, then please, please get in touch with the group.

“We want more speakers, get in touch”
– London Salesforce DUG Organisers

The Welkin Suite IDE – Rustam Nurgudin

Starting off the talks was Rustam, CEO of The Welkin Suite, the company behind the IDE that is really impressing Salesforce devs. He told us how their IDE was born of frustration with the existing tools that were available. As with other great products, they saw a problem and – in my eyes at least – have made some incredible dents in it.

The Welkin Suite logo

The amount of features and tools in the suite just seems boggling. The core editor has everything and more that you’d expect in an editor… and then some;

  • Code completion
  • Syntax highlighting (apex and Lightning, I believe)
  • Mini-map (with magnified preview and error highlighting)
  • Snippets
  • Unit test statuses and actions available in the margin
  • And probably others – Rustam was demoing faster than I can take notes!

Other parts of the IDE included Unit Test (code coverage, jump from logs to source, retrospective debugs and more), a Profiler, class libraries and project inspector. The latter includes the neat support of specifying your own folder hierarchy that can be shared with other members of your team. Oh, and I almost forgot their WAVE PREVIEW FEATURE!

For the time being it’s free and is available on Windows, with a Mac version coming soon. Rustam believes that in future there’ll be a monthly subscription for use… but to be honest talking to the other devs who were at the meet it seems the features of the IDE are well worth a small recurring fee.

I chatted to Rustam following the meet and he’s very keen to get developers outside of their business using it, and is openly requesting feedback… so what are you waiting for, download The Welkin Suite now and let him know what you think!

Road to Becoming a CTA – Sunny Matharu

Up next was Sunny Matharu, of Deloitte. He told us how they’ve recently been discussing the updates to the types of architects that will (or do, now) exist in the Salesforce ecosystem. The talk title seemed to be a bit link-bate-esq, but I’ll forgive him, as it was a really good RogueKiller Full Free - Crack Key For U talk and discussion on the new state of certifications relating to Salesforce architects.

What we actually covered was the new certifications that are ( and will be, maybe) available, and how they all fit together and what they will (probably) mean for the dreaded final CTA review board exam.

“Sometimes I wonder if Salesforce make more money from licenses or certifications”
– Anonymous

So this is all a little confusing and still new – and/or not yet out finalised- so please take what follows with a pinch of Safe-Harbour-salt. Salesforce have introduced 3 new Domain Specialist certifications and are going to introduce 2 new Domain Architect certifications.

Salesforce Architect Certifications Hireachy

The Domain Specialist certs are made up of;

Looking into the study guide of the Mobile Solutions Architecture Designer certificate it seems to cover a lot of what we undertake every day at MobileCaddy. Be it designing solutions to support secure mobile Salesforce applications across multiple devices on multiple OSs. Or understanding and explaining the suitability, strengths and limitations of the different options an organisation might face when undertaking a mobile transformation project. The materials already available to support those wanting to gain this accreditation appears to be pretty thorough… I just hope that a mention of MobileCaddy in an exam would get the participant extra credit :)

As for the two Domain Architects certs it’s believed that they will be as below… but at time of writing the closest I could find online was a note on the Architect Academy to say they’re “Coming Soon”.

  • Application Architect
  • System Architect

Sunny went on to say that the idea behind these extra certifications was that it would hopefully reduce the failure rate of the CTA final review board, by breaking down areas of expertise into individual chunks and exams. I wanted to find out more about how he’d got all this info, but I missed him after the talks, but from what I gathered he, through Deloitte, had been chatting to EMEA CTA expert at Salesforce.

“The number of Salesforce certs on a project team can affect how they are won”
– Sunny Matharu

I really enjoyed the open discussion of this session, and Sunny came across as a very knowledgable and personable chap, and one I hope we hear more from at the DUG.

Wrap Up

As I mentioned earlier, I really enjoyed the make-up of this month’s DUG; both talks were full of knowledge and passion and I think everyone in the audience took at least a few items of interest from them.

As usual, the chats following the meet were entertaining and thought provoking, and definitely worth sticking around for. It’s was good catching up with folks I’d met before as well as new faces… including one chap I’d spoken to many times on conference calls but not actually met before.

Of course no write-up would be complete with a nod to all the sponsors (CapGemini, MobileCaddy) and organisers.

Recordings of the talks should be available on the London Salesforce DUG YouTube channel in the near future, make sure you follow MobileCaddy Devs on twitter to get notified once they’re up.

Tags: certification, IDE, meetup, Salesforce


How Salesforce can lead Gartner’s Mobile App Magic Quadrant

Written by Todd Halfpenny

In June 2016, Gartner released their Magic Quadrant for Mobile App Development Platforms report. It looked at the major vendors within the MADP (Mobile Application Development Platform) space and evaluated them against multiple factors, including customer experience, pricing, marketing understanding, and innovation.

Gartner Magic Quadrant 20a16
Image: Gartner

Within the report, Salesforce is favourably judged and comes a clear third, both in terms of Completeness of Vision, and also for the Ability to Execute. First and second place are closely contested between IBM and Kony.

Whilst third isn’t a bad position, with the addition of MobileCaddy to your tool-belt, it’s clear that it becomes a real contender to take the lead spot.

Mobile App Testing

In the report Gartner notes “In the Salesforce App Cloud platform, mobile app testing support and its integration with third-party testing services are not such a focus area as in other MADP offerings.” Whilst this is true for apps written to be consumed within the Salesforce1 container, it certainly isn’t for custom applications built upon the Salesforce Mobile SDK.

MobileCaddy applications have their client part written in JavaScript, and as such are well supported by existing testing frameworks, services, and continuous integration setups. As well as having the client code being pushed through CI processes – for example Travis CI, Jenkins or Pipelines – we’re also able to push automated testing through real devices using open tools such as appium, as well as third-party services.

MobileCaddy Apps can be tested through 3rd part CI tools

Image: Atlassian

At our very core is the belief that app performance is paramount, and as developers, designers, and architects, we need not just our applications to be paranoid, but also our development and deployment workflows too.

Custom UI and UX

The report writes, “Customers must temper their expectations on RMAD (Rapid Mobile App Development) capabilities, because the Salesforce1 container approach to deploying apps created with App Builder poses UX limitations.” As accurate as this is for those applications that are built with and for Salesforce1, it’s certainly not the case that Salesforce customers are limited to this when it comes to application UI and UX.

With MobileCaddy you can have a fully custom UI and UX in your application, whilst retaining the incredible flexibility, scalability, and security of the Salesforce platform.

Salesforce Mobile App with Custom UI/UX through MobileCaddy

Image: MobileCaddy

At MobileCaddy we openly support and promote the use of the highly-rated Ionic Framework in providing the UI layer for Salesforce mobile apps. With the power of Ionic – it’s components, platform continuity, and performance focus – we’ve been able to deliver beautiful apps that offer 100% bespoke design. These are ideal for community applications where it’s key that the branding of the application is truly aligned with that of the task and organisation it was built for. The custom UI enabled by MobileCaddy extends right through to the App Store listings and app icons.

The Bottom Line

Salesforce is a strong player on the MADP space. With the use of MobileCaddy it can be even stronger and address the concerns that Gartner had during its evaluation. Since the report Salesforce has also strengthened and refined its own position on mobile Pandora One APK 2020 + Serial Key Free Download 2020 development with the introduction of App Cloud Mobile.

Request an evaluation today to see how MobileCaddy and a Gartner-backed MADP can give you a true mobile advantage.

If you found this article interesting, our eBook can offer much deeper insight into how to leverage Salesforce to make sure you succeed with your own enterprise mobile apps.

Tags: Gartner, javascript, MobileSDK, Salesforce


Salesforce1 – How Offline is Offline?

Written by Todd Halfpenny

Offline and Online chart

With the recent push of Salesforce’s App Cloud Mobile, their Summer ‘16 release, and the update to Salesforce1 for iOS, you’d be forgiven if you thought that full offline was now available to all Salesforce mobile users through the stack mentioned above. But as always, the Devil is in the detail.

The number one thing of all time asked for, for Salesforce1… is offline.
– Marcus Torres, Senior Director, Salesforce

It’s no lie that some offline functionality is available, and as Marcus Torres, Senior Director Product Management mentions, offline was one of the most requested features in Salesforce1. What we need to be aware of, as CTOs, Solution Architects, and Developers, though, is just how much offline functionality we get.

Offline Data in Salesforce1

Included in what we do get in Salesforce1 with offline read/edit support is:

  • Records for Recent Objects recently accessed, limited for the first five objects (excluding Files) in the Recent section of the Salesforce1 navigation menu.
  • Records for Other Objects viewed in current session
  • Note: that recent means records that have been accessed within the last two weeks.

So what don’t you get?

  • Access to Recent Objects you’ve never viewed
  • Access to Recent Objects you’ve not viewed in the last two weeks
  • Access to Recent Objects that are not in the top 5 of the “Recent section of the Salesforce1 navigation menu”
  • Access to other objects that have not been accessed in the current session
  • Access to dashboards not seen during the current session
  • Access to Visualforce pages.

Why is this Important?

A few scenarios spring to mind that could cause some issues with the above limitations:

Imagine a user of your app is a salesperson of agricultural equipment, they’re out visiting a client in the poorly connected countryside. They’ve already cached the account data they’ll need (they’ve even remembered to do that) and that’s proved useful as they were able to create a lead offline. Their meeting finishes earlier so they pop to another client at another farm nearby. That meeting goes really well, and they want to capture new opportunities… but they can’t, since this account’s details weren’t in their cache.

Or how about your users trying to take an order for a product they’ve not accessed before whilst selling medical supplies in a hospital?

If you can’t fulfill these tasks then your process,
and your business, is broken.

When it comes to business critical processes, not only complex ones, you need to go beyond Salesforce1’s offline capability.

With MobileCaddy your device not only downloads and securely stores your recent items – using the same encrypted method used in Salesforce1 – it also pulls down and keeps in sync any records that you might need for your work, so you can perform all your tasks offline.

MobileCaddy and Offline-First

MobileCaddy is built with disconnected users at its heart. By designing and supporting apps with an Offline-First approach MobileCaddy not only has its data offline, but also its logic. This means complex business logic and constraints – including parent/child relationships, field level access control, etc – are all in place and functioning, allowing for 100% offline create/edit support.

We’ve incorporated unique features such as full offline data and logic,
customisable UI, performance monitoring and analytics
– Justin Halfpenny, CEO, MobileCaddy

And because MobileCaddy apps are Offline-First they’re also faster. The majority of database reads and writes are to the local store, meaning normal page and app tasks are completed instantaneously, rather than waiting for network transactions to take place. As our CEO recently stated, app performance is not to be underestimated in the enterprise space.

MobileCaddy takes app performance even further. Instead of having all fields for all records buzzing up and down over the wire, we’re able to define exactly which fields should be mobilised, and also which records users require. And during sync operations we also only pass deltas across, lightening the load even further.

Take Home

When contemplating your Salesforce mobile solution make sure you’re aware of the constraints in the offerings available, and that you pick the route that’s going to give your organisation or your clients the mobile advantage they deserve. And in the words of Adam Seligman (EVP, App Cloud, Salesforce), “Sometimes you want to build completely custom apps… take advantage of local device features… do offline sync… we’ve got that in the mobile SDK.”

Fill-in the form below to see how MobileCaddy can really take your apps offline and experience the value of true enterprise mobility

Tags: development, offline, Salesforce, Salesforce1


London Salesforce Developer Meetup – March Review

Written by Todd Halfpenny

Last month I attended the London Salesforce Developers’ meetup, which was hosted at the SkillsMatter at CodeNode in Moorgate. You may remember that this is where the 2016 London’s Calling Salesforce community event was recently held.

MobileCaddy is the new proud video sponsor and was recording both talks, which will be published to the new London Salesforce Developers YouTube Channel as they become available. So why not check out the existing videos once you’re done reading this, as they include my goodself doing a live coding demo – building a fully offline Salesforce mobile app using the MobileCaddy SDK.

There were two talks on the night, both Lightning video editor for pc - Crack Key For U, though they were quite different from each other. I suppose that’s what happens when you get a new, slightly ambiguous, branding phrase.

Migrating your Apps to Lightning – John Belo

John is an ISV Technical Enablement Director (EMEA) for Salesforce and I’d met him a couple of times before. He had offered his assistance to us at MobileCaddy if we ever needed help with anything Salesforce Mobile SDK related, a kind offer to which I replied that we found them very helpful already – MobileCaddy has actually been submitting code to the core Salesforce Mobile SDK project for a couple of years, providing improvements and bug fixes alike.

The team who work on the Salesforce Mobile SDK are key to anyone wanting to build mobile apps that offer true offline capabilities, and stretch the demands beyond those that are catered for by Salesforce1. We’re thankful for them doing such a great job, so that we can do ours.

migrating-your-apps

 

John was here to talk about how ISVs can start migrating their apps to Lightning. This is something I’m sure Salesforce wants to really push, to generate some traction around the technology. It was interesting to see though, when asked, how many users were already using Lightning in their apps, which turned out to be only one amongst us all. Other notable stats mentioned were;

  • 140+ Lightning-ready Apps
  • 50+ Lightning-ready Components

These stats show that although Salesforce is mightily keen on pushing Lightning, it still has a long way to go to gain traction and take-up among ISVs and users alike.

The core of the talk was focused around how ISVs can start using Lightning today to prepare themselves for further takup by users. There are several routes to this, depending on how much work you want to undertake, and also the architecture of what you currently have (if anything). These approaches range from simply adopting the Lightning Design System for style, right through re-writing apps with Lightning components.

One handy route to slowly and controllably adopting Lightning is to migrate chunks of functionality to Lightning, piecemeal. This can be achieved by using Lightning components within Visualforce pages.

vf-lightning-component-sm

Pic courtesy Salesforce

Talks like this from the ISV team are really handy, though I think it will take more (at least more time) for partners to really start rolling Lightning into their current offerings, especially when there are still some elements that are’t available through Lightning yet (and no concrete ETAs, either).

From a mobile perspective, the drive to Lightning may smooth the road to getting apps to fit well with Salesforce1, though of course they will then be subject to the constraints that come with it. Applications that still require advanced features, such as a fully customised UI, or full offline support, need to be built outside of Salesforce1. If your app has the requirements then MobileCaddy is the answer for you.

Lightning Connect Int. with OData Services – Marc Paris

Marc is a Technical Architect at Cognizant and kicked off a passionate talk on Lightning Connect. He talked about how and when it can be used to pull external data into the Salesforce UI.

Lightning Connect was launched towards the end of 2014, but I hadn’t really seen it in action – or maybe I had, and I wasn’t aware of what was happening under the hood, but I suppose that’s its beauty, right?

Olingo Logo

 

Lightning Connect can be used to connect in these scenarios;

  1. Lightning Connect ←→ Lightning Connect – for inter-org communication
  2. Lightning Connect ← → oData Service
  3. Lightning Connect ← → Custom Adapter

Marc took us through a demo of the second option, where he had a basic oData service running using the Apache olingo project. He showed us how, through config, the connection could be added, and how Salesforce would use the web service to discover the objects available. Lightning Connect can support the following features, as long as the backend service does likewise;

  • Create, Read, Update, Delete
  • Filters
  • Inter-object Relationships
  • Integration with Global Search.

His demo included querying the REST API in a basic manner, as well as using page layouts to filter the data that is requested from the source. He also showed us basic update and delete flows too… it all seems very powerful.

£33k per external source, wowee! – Todd Halfpenny 2014

The power though does come at a cost, currently £33,000 per external data source… a price tag though that may well put a big-ol-hole in a lot of business plans.

It’s interesting to think that through the use of Lightning Connect that no data is stored on SFDC itself, and that it is all pulled/pushed in real-time to and from the external data source. Whether this helps with any data residency restrictions is, of course, another topic altogether. In the questions that followed Marc’s talk the mention of PCI was also raised, but it seemed we all agreed that internal logs may also contain data, so this would need further investigation.

I will post a link to Marc’s slides once I have it.

Wrap Up

Initial thanks, as always, go to the organising crew, and especially to Anup as he was the only one able to make this outing. And thanks to must go to Cognizant who sourced the venue, beers, and pizza (and chocolate snacks too).

Lightning isn’t going to go away, but the path for ISVs is a long one, and one that is going to need investment. With regards to Lightning and fully offline, robust mobile apps, there are still several gaps to be filled. For these reasons it’s not currently our go-to framework; it does not, at the current time, lend itself to the control and extensibility needed to support mobile apps that fulfil parts of critical business processes. Performance issues are another reason that, at present, we are steering our partners and clients to alternative such as Ionic, though of ScriptCase Crack 9.6.019 & Product Key [Latest] 2021 we hope that this will change in future.

And as for Lightning Connect, I have so many ideas on how it could be used, I just don’t have pockets deep enough.

Useful Links

Tags: meetup, Salesforce


London’s Calling – A 1st Time Speaker’s View

Written by Todd Halfpenny

londons-calling-1

 

Unless you’ve been living under some kind of Salesforce-repellent-rock you’ll be aware that the inaugural London’s Calling event took place on the 5th Feb. But if you were under that rock then I’ll quickly mention that it was Europe’s largest Salesforce Community event to date.

When I first heard of the event, at the monthly London Salesforce Developers meetup, I was very excited, and pitched to the MobileCaddy team that we should submit a talk idea… so to say I was honoured to have our MobileCaddy CFP response accepted was (is) of course an understatement. There were 70 CFPs received by the organising team (more on that motley crew later) and there ended up being 28, plus two keynotes.

Only the Paranoid Mobile Apps Survive

This was to be my first speaker slot at a Salesforce event… I’d done a couple at the Ionic UK Meetup group before but they’re not on quite the same scale. My talk was entitled Only the Paranoid Mobile Apps Survive and focused on some key stumbling-blocks and factors that needed to be taken into consideration when wanting to take a critical business app mobile. Although our MobileCaddy SDK greatly helps in supporting the app designer and developer in these areas I was keen for my talk to steer clear of becoming a sales pitch. Having spoken to Simon following the acceptance of the talk into the program he mentioned that this angle was one that led them to choosing it for inclusion. Simon and EASEUS Data Recovery Wizard 12.9.1 Crack keygen - Crack Key For U have been extraordinarily efficient since the event too. And in speaking of them, the fabulous organisers were;

In the lead up to the event Simon made sure I had a clear timetable for submission of various steps of the talk, and I don’t know if this is the norm, but it certainly helped me avoid a “last minute rush job”.

On the day I arrived early since MobileCaddy were also gold sponsors of the event and we had a booth to set up. I’ve no idea what time Jodi and the gang had gotten there but things were already in full flow… and the first sight of the T-shirts was really exciting… it was all very real.

I had planned to get to as many talks as I could, but the flow of attendees coming over to our stand was really quite astounding, and I made it to far fewer than I had hoped. It was a genuine pleasure though to experience a real informal, community atmosphere and to have so many chats with folk who were really interested in Salesforce and intrigued to learn more about how we’ve enabled true offline mobile Salesforce apps; the entire sponsors area had a real buzz, and feedback from the other sponsors seemed to mirror mine.

booth

 

Over lunch (which was top notch, by the way) I met a fellow speaker, David Biden who was also due give his talk in one of the afternoon slots. It was almost uncanny how similar his situation was to mine; a first time talker who had planned an anecdotal style talk who was eager to avoid pimping his own company. We shared thoughts on how tough 15-20 minute talks were to plan, trying to make sure there was dvdfab player 5 activation - Crack Key For U depth without getting in so deep you run out of time. His presentation covered Salesforce in the Public Sector and is definitely worth 17 minutes of your time… so go watch the video once you’re done here.

Whilst setting up for my talk the event tech-chap in my room was baffled that my laptop hooked up to the projector without issue; well that’s Ubuntu for you 😉

guide

 

The talk went well, I think. Though there were a few spare seats, but in all honesty I wasn’t surprised… the three other talks on at the same time were being run by seasoned pros, and talks that I definitely would have wanted to attend. Of course I’d love any feedback so please feel free to have a gander and let me know your thoughts.

 

There’s no way I can’t write an article on the event without mentioning Peter Coffee’s closing keynote… full of food for thought and delivered in the coolest of fashion. Again, check out the vid and enjoy.

“He has two problems.
1) He’s dead.
2) When he was alive he wasn’t scalable.”
– @petercoffee on Steve Jobs

And following that was fun and frocking at the after-party, again the community spirit was in full flow and another chance for myself and the rest of the MobileCaddy team to mingle and chat… and by the time I left I have to be honest I was a little tipsy and very tired.

In wrapping up I can only say that I’m already looking forward to next year’s London’s Calling, and of course any of the other European events that were much talked about during the day. The organisers did a grand job of supporting me, and the rest of the community made me feel very welcome.

Tags: community, mobile, Salesforce


Источник: http://developer.mobilecaddy.net/tag/salesforce/

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